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Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemical Contaminants Adsorbed to Microplastics in the Clam Scrobicularia plana
Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although microplastics are distributed globally in the marine environment, a great deal of unknowns relating to their ecotoxicological effects on the marine biota remain. Due to their lipophilic nature, microplastics have the potential to adsorb persistent organic pollutants present in contaminated regions, which may increase their detrimental impact once assimilated by organisms. This study investigates the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) microplastics (11 - 13 µm), with and without adsorbed contaminants (benzo[a]pyrene - BaP and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid - PFOS), in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. Environmentally relevant concentrations of contaminants (BaP - 16.87±0.22 µg g-1 and PFOS - 70.22±12.41 µg g-1) were adsorbed to microplastics to evaluate the potential role of plastic particles as a source of chemical contamination once ingested. S. plana were exposed to microplastics, at a concentration of 1 mg L-1, in a water-sediment exposure setup for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment (day 0) and after 3, 7 and 14 days. BaP accumulation, in whole clam tissues, was analysed. A multi-biomarker assessment was conducted in the gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph of clams to clarify the effects of exposure. This included the quantification of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation levels), genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks), and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). Results suggest a potential mechanical injury of gills caused by ingestion of microplastics that may also affect the analysed biomarkers. The digestive gland seems less affected by mechanical damage caused by virgin microplastic exposure, with the MP-adsorbed BaP and PFOS exerting a negative influence over the assessed biomarkers in this tissue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018. Vol. 5, article id 143
Keywords [en]
polyethylene, benzo[a]pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, DNA damage, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, oxidative damage
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69513DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00143ISI: 000457085600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85046668101OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-69513DiVA, id: diva2:1278167
Note

Funding Agencies:

JPI Oceans  FCT JPIOCEANS/0005/2015 

JPI Oceans (BELSPO)  

JPI Oceans (FWO)  

JPI Oceans (FORMAS)  

JPI Oceans (SwAM)  

FCT  UID/MAR/00350/2013 

Available from: 2019-01-12 Created: 2019-01-12 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved

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Cormier, BettieKeiter, Steffen H.

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