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Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for measuring the hydration status in young elite synchronized swimmers
INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University,Östersund, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4627-7254
INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0178819Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables.

METHODS: Forty-nine elite SS female swimmers of two age categories, comen (Co: 13.9 ± 0.9 years, n = 34) and junior (Jr: 16.3 ± 0.6 years, n = 15), performed a long, high intensity training session. Body mass (BM) and bioelectrical variables (R, resistance; Xc, reactance; PA, phase angle; and Z, impedance module) were assessed pre- and post-training. BIVA was used to characterize 1) the distribution pattern of the bioelectrical vector (BIA vector) for both age groups, and 2) pre- to post-training BIA vector migration. Bioelectrical variables were also correlated with BM change values.

RESULTS: Most swimmers were mostly located outside the 75% and some beyond the 95% percentile of the bioelectrical tolerance ellipses of the general population. The BIA vector showed statistically significant differences in both Co (T2 = 134.7, p = 0.0001) and Jr (T2 = 126.2, p < 0.001). Both groups were also bioelectrically different (T2 = 17.6, p < 0.001). After the training session, a decrease in BM (p = 0.0001) and an increase in BIA variables (p = 0.01) was observed. BIVA also showed a significant pre-post vector migration both in Co (T2 = 82.1; p < 0.001) and Jr (T2 = 41.8; p < 0.001). No correlations were observed between BM changes and bioelectrical variables.

CONCLUSIONS: BIVA showed specific bioelectrical characteristics in young elite SS athletes. Considering the decrease in BM and the migration of the BIA vector, we conclude that the homeostatic hydration status of these young elite female swimmers was affected by the execution of intense training sessions. From a methodological perspective, BIVA appears to be sensitive enough to detect subtle hydration changes, but further research is needed to ensure its validity and reliability. Moreover, these findings highlight the importance of ensuring adequate fluid intake during training in young SS athletes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2017. Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0178819
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71332DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178819ISI: 000402880700050PubMedID: 28591135Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85020435864OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-71332DiVA, id: diva2:1278387
Note

Funding Agencies:

Generalitat de Catalunya, Institut Catala de les Dones 

Agenda de Gestio d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGUAR)

Consejo Superior de Deportes 

AGAUR 

Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved

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Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara

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