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The benefits of continuous glucose monitoring and a glucose monitoring schedule in individuals with type 1 diabetes during recreational diving
Gothenburg Pediatric Growth Research Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Institute for the Health of Women and Children, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Swedish Sportsdiving Federation, Farsta, Sweden.
Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Clinical Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1025-1682
2008 (English)In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 778-784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Our objective is to evaluate the Medtronic CGMS continuous glucose monitoring system and plasma glucose (PG) measurement performed in a monitoring schedule as tools to identify individuals with type 1 diabetes at risk when diving.

METHODS: We studied 24 adults, 12 type 1 diabetes subjects and 12 controls, during 5 recreational scuba dives performed on 3 consecutive days. The CGMS was used by all participants on all the days and all the dives. Comparisons were made between PG performed in a monitoring schedule during the days of diving, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) performed 2 weeks prior to diving, and the CGMS during the study.

RESULTS: One hundred seventeen dives were performed. Hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) was found in six individuals and on nine occasions. However, no symptoms of hypoglycemia were present during or immediately postdiving. In one case, repetitive hypoglycemia prediving gave rise to a decision not to dive. None of the dives were aborted. The number of hypoglycemic episodes, 10 min prediving or immediately postdiving, were related to the duration of diabetes, r = 0.83 and p =0.01, and the percentage of SMBG values below target (<72 mg/dl), r = 0.65 and p =0.02. Moreover, the number of hypoglycemic episodes was also related to the total duration below low limit (<70 mg/dl), measured by the CGMS, r =0.74 and p =0.006.

CONCLUSION: Safe dives are possible to achieve by well-informed, well-controlled individuals with type 1 diabetes. Using downloaded SMBG, CGMS, and repetitive PG in a monitoring schedule, it is possible to identify those subjects who are suitable for diving.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Diabetes Technology Society , 2008. Vol. 2, no 5, p. 778-784
Keywords [en]
CGMS, blood glucose, diving, type 1 diabetes mellitus
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74511DOI: 10.1177/193229680800200505PubMedID: 19885260Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-70349458061OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-74511DiVA, id: diva2:1319142
Note

Funding agencies:

Aidera

Medtronic

Novo Nordisk

Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved

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Jendle, Johan

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