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Importance of genetic effects for characteristics of the human iris
Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7546-2275
2003 (English)In: Twin research, ISSN 1369-0523, E-ISSN 2053-6003, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 192-200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relative importance of genetic influences (heritability) on five general textural quality characteristics of the human iris was assessed using sex and age limitation models. Colour photographs of irises were available from 100 monozygotic twin pairs, 99 dizygotic twin pairs, and 99 unrelated randomly paired age-matched German subjects. Comparative scales were constructed and two judges who were blind to zygosity independently rated five characteristic of the subjects' left iris. Inter-rater reliabilities were larger than .90 for all five scales. The heritabilities for the five iris characteristics ranged from .51-.90. No sex-specific genetic factors were found for the iris characteristics. Age-group differences in heritability were found for one of the five iris characteristics — "distinction of white dot rings". Heritability was greater for the older cohort (90%) than the younger (73%). The iris characteristics that showed the next highest additive-genetic effect were "contractional furrows" (78%) and "frequency of crypts" in the main stroma leaf (66%).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 6, no 3, p. 192-200
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2856DOI: 10.1375/136905203765693843OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-2856DiVA, id: diva2:135314
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Human iris characteristics as biomarkers for personality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human iris characteristics as biomarkers for personality
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation explains why behavioral genetic research can be better informed by using characteristics in the human iris as biomarkers for personality, and is divided into five parts. Part I gives an introduction to the classical twin method and an overview of the findings that have led most developmental researchers to recognize that the normal variation of personality depends on a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Part II highlights empirical findings that during the last twenty years have gradually moved genetic and environmental theory and research to evolve toward one another, and also presents the theory of genetics and experience that currently is used to explain how the interplay between genes and the environment works. Part III explains why, from a developmental perspective, it is of interest to identify candidate genes for personality, and gives a brief overview of genes that have been associated with personality. Problems associated with genetic research on the molecular level and how these apply to personality are also highlighted. Part IV examines molecular research on the iris and the brain, which suggests that genes expressed in the iris could be associated with personality, and explains how the use of iris characteristics can increase power to test candidate genes for personality by taking advantage of the self-organizing properties of the nervous system. The empirical foundation for the questions posed in this dissertation and also the empirical results are presented here. Part V discusses the associations found between iris characteristics and personality, and exemplifies how iris characteristics can be used within the theoretical frameworks presented in parts I, II, III and IV. In other words, Part V explains how iris characteristics – in addition to identify as well as test candidate genes for personality – can be used to investigate how people’s experiences in themselves are influenced by genetic factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2007. p. 128
Series
Örebro Studies in Psychology, ISSN 1651-1328 ; 12
Keywords
Personality, iris characteristics/crypts/pigment dots/contraction furrows, candidate genes MITF/PAX6/SIX3/LMX1B/FOXC1/FOXC2/PITX2/BMP4/OLFM3/ MSX1/MSX2, anterior cingulate, genetic correlations, heritability, hemispheric asymmetries, approach-related behaviors
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-1684 (URN)978-91-7668-562-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-14, Hörsal L 3, Långhuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, MatsStattin, Håkan

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