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The effect of anesthetic technique on early postoperative gastric emptying: comparison of propofol-remifentanil and opioid-free sevoflurane anesthesia
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
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2006 (English)In: Journal of Anesthesia, ISSN 0913-8668, E-ISSN 1438-8359, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 261-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: A postoperative decrease in the gastric emptying (GE) rate may delay the early start of oral feeding and alter the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the effect on early gastric emptying between two anesthetic techniques.

METHODS: Fifty patients (age, 19-69 years) undergoing day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to received either total intravenous anesthesia with propofol/remifentanil/rocuronium (TIVA; n = 25) or inhalational opioid-free anesthesia with sevoflurane/rocuronium (mask induction; GAS; n = 25). Postoperative gastric emptying was evaluated by the acetaminophen method. After arrival in the recovery unit, acetaminophen (paracetamol) 1.5 g was given through a nasogastric tube, and blood samples were drawn during a 2-h period. The area under the serum-acetaminophen concentration curve from 0-60 min (AUC60), the maximal concentration (Cmax), and the time to reach C-max (Tmax) were calculated.

RESULTS: Twelve patients were excluded due to surgical complications (e.g., conversion to open surgery) and difficulty in drawing blood samples (TIVA, n = 7; GAS, n = 5). Gastric emptying parameters were (mean +/- SD): TIVA, AUC60, 2458 +/- 2775 min.micromol.l(-1); Cmax, 71 +/- 61 micromol.l(-1); and Tmax, 81 +/- 37 min; and GAS, AUC60, 2059 +/- 2633 min.micromol.l(-1); Cmax, 53 +/- 53 micromol.l(-1); and Tmax, 83 +/- 41 min. There were no significant differences between groups.

CONCLUSION: There was no major difference in early postoperative gastric emptying between inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane versus total intravenous anesthesia with propofol-remifentanil. Both groups showed a pattern of delayed gastric emptying, and the variability in gastric emptying was high. Perioperative factors other than anesthetic technique may have more influence on gastric emptying.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 20, no 4, p. 261-267
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Surgery Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
Research subject
Anaesthesiology; Surgery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2897DOI: 10.1007/s00540-006-0436-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-2897DiVA, id: diva2:135440
Available from: 2008-03-06 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The influence of opioids on gastric function: experimental and clinical studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of opioids on gastric function: experimental and clinical studies
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Efter operation och anestesi får patienter ofta en negativ påverkan på magsäck och tarmar. Illamående och kräkningar är ett stort problem och många har svårt att komma igång med intag av föda och normal tarmfunktion då magsäcken och tarmarna ”står stilla”. Flera faktorer bidrar- bl.a. smärtan, det kirurgiska traumat och de läkemedel vi ger i samband med anestesin. Av de senare är opioider, d.v.s morfin och morfinliknande läkemedel, starkt bidragande. I detta avhandlings- arbete har opioiders effekter på magsäckens motilitet studerats.

Med ett absorptionstest (paracetamolmetoden) studerades hos frivilliga hur opioiden remifentanil påverkar magsäckstömning och om kroppspositionen har betydelse för tömningshastigheten ut i tarmen. Remifentanil fördröjde magsäcks-tömningen och under pågående opioid behandling hade kroppspositionen ingen större betydelse, vilket det däremot hade under kontrollförsöken. Med samma metod jämförde vi hos patienter två anestesimetoder och studerade magsäcks-tömning direkt efter en operation. Ingen skillnad kunde påvisas mellan en opioidbaserad och en opioidfri anestesi, men inom respektive grupp var det en stor variation i magsäckstömning mellan individerna.

Med en barostat studerades tonus i övre delen av magsäcken. Hos hälften av de frivilliga orsakade remifentanil en ökning av tonus och hos den andra hälften en minskning av tonus. Vidare undersöktes hos en grupp patienter opioiden fentanyls påverkan på den elektriska aktiviteten i magsäcken. Med en elekroga-strograf (EGG) registrerades de långsamma elektriska vågor som koordinerar muskelrörelserna i magsäcken. Hos hälften av de undersökta påverkades aktiviteten av fentanyl med en sänkt vågfrekvens eller upphörande av vågor, medan aktiviteten var opåverkad hos den övriga hälften. För att finna en förklaring till variationen gjordes genetiska analyser av genen för opioidreceptorn hos de undersökta i barostat och EGG studierna. Variationer i genomet, s.k. polymorfism, var inte associerad till utfallen i studierna.

Studierna har visat på att opioider har en uttalad effekt på magsäckens motilitet och att den varierar kraftigt mellan individer. Polymorfism i genen för opioid- receptorn förklarade inte skillnaden mellan individer. Direkt efter operation bidrar sannolikt andra faktorer än anestesimetod till det variabla utfallet i magsäckstömning.

Abstract [en]

After anesthesia and/or surgical procedures, gastrointestinal motility is commonly impaired. The causes are multifactorial, with surgical trauma, pain and perioperative drugs playing a major role. This thesis explores opioid effects on gastric motility in healthy volunteers and patients undergoing surgery.

Gastric emptying was studied by an absorption test (paracetamol method), and in healthy volunteers a remifentanil infusion delayed gastric emptying. Body position altered emptying during the control situations, but not during the remifentanil infusion. Further, two anesthetic methods were compared and no differences were found in immediate postoperative gastric emptying between a remifentanil/propofol based intravenous anesthesia and an opioid free inhalational anesthesia, although the interindividual variability was high. Proximal gastric tone was studied using a gastric barostat. An infusion of remifentanil caused two patterns of reaction regarding gastric tone, with half of the subjects increasing and half decreasing in gastric tone. Gastric myoelectrical activity was evaluated with electrogastrography (EGG), and a bolus dose of fentanyl caused a decrease in frequency of the gastric slow waves or disrupted this activity. However, the activity was unaffected in half of the investigated subjects. Analysis of polymorphisms (A118G and G691C) in the µ-opioid receptor gene was performed to find an explanation for the great interindividual variations seen in the barostat and EGG studies, but no association could be found.

These studies have shown that opioids have pronounced effects on gastric motility with variable individual responses that are difficult to predict. Polymorphisms in the µ-opioid receptor gene could not explain the variations. Postoperatively, other factors might contribute more than opioids to the impairment in gastric motility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2008. p. 66
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 14
Keywords
gastrointestinal motility, gastric emptying, gastric tone, electrogastrography, analgesics, opioids, µ-opioid receptor, polymorphism
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-1762 (URN)978-91-7668-583-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-03-27, Wilandersalen, M-huset, Universitetssjukhuset Örebro, Örebro, 13:00 (English)
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Note
ISSN 1652-4063Available from: 2008-03-06 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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