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Leaching of mercury-containing cement monoliths aged for one year
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2104-4593
2008 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 597-603Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A directive from the Swedish Government states that waste containing more than 1% of mercury shall be permanently deposited. The stabilization of mercury by conversion to a sparingly soluble compound like the sulphide is crucial to ensure long-term immobilization in a permanent storage. Immobilization by the solidification/stabilization (S/S) method and possible formation of HgS from mercury oxide or elemental mercury by reaction with a sulphur source (S or FeS) is investigated by a modified version of the NEN 7345 Dutch tank-leaching test. The diffusion of mercury during 11 months from 1-year-old mercury containing monoliths of Portland and slag cement is demonstrated. In a geologic repository under conditions representative of deep granitic bedrock (bicarbonate buffered to pH 8.6), a favourable monolith combination is slag cement with addition of the iron sulphide troilite. The apparent diffusion coefficient of mercury is estimated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 28, no 3, p. 597-603
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2972DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2007.02.031ISI: 000253097600016PubMedID: 17544639Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-37449015893OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-2972DiVA, id: diva2:135845
Available from: 2006-01-13 Created: 2006-01-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mercury immobilization: a requirement for permanent disposal of mercury waste in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mercury immobilization: a requirement for permanent disposal of mercury waste in Sweden
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish Government states that mercury in the Swedish industry and private use shall be collected and waste containing more than 1% of mercury shall be conditioned for permanent storage in proposed groundwater-saturated repository in deep bedrock. The owners of mercury waste in Sweden are responsible for finding ways to the conversion of the mercury waste to insoluble forms.

The aim of this thesis was to investigate different low-cost immobilization methods for mercury. Choice of treatment method depends on the nature of the waste, such as the mercury concentration and matrix constituents. High-contaminated waste would be suitable to transform to chemically insoluble mercury forms, while low-contaminated wastes would be suitable to treat with an encapsulation method. The investigations assessed conditions favourable for the formation of HgS at room temperature from elemental mercury as well as from mercury oxide. Elemental sulphur in an alkaline anaerobic environment gave a yield of close to 100% mercury sulphide within two years.

The stabilization/solidification (S/S) method was estimated as a suitable treatment method for low contaminated mercury waste (below 5%w/w). The lowest leaching rate was observed from slag monoliths with elemental sulphur as sulphur source. After one year the accumulated leaching amount was 0.008-0.013%w/w of the total mercury content of the monolith (1% of the monolith mass). This is about 100-150 times more than from monoliths that initially contained black meta-cinnabar.

Apparent diffusion coefficients for Hg(II)(aq) were determined in cement monoliths with different constituents (10-14-10-15 m2/s), for a barrier of Standard Portland concrete (10-14 m2/s) and in quartz sand (10-13 m2/s). After some 60 d in the leaching test, the apparent diffusion coefficient was of the order 10-17-10-21 m2/s, which was indicative of a slow release rate of the remaining mercury that could represent the dissolution/transformation of HgS, which gradually was formed during curing of the cement (aged for one year). The apparent diffusion coefficient for Hg(0) could not be measured since the mercury species oxidizes in aerobic systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2006. p. 35
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 8
Keywords
mercury, mercury sulphide, cinnabar, stabilization, solidification, encapsulation, monolith leaching, solubility, mercury speciation, diffusion, apparent diffusion coefficient
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-207 (URN)91-7668-466-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-02-03, P1, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-01-13 Created: 2006-01-12 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Svensson, MargaretaAllard, Bert

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