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Semantic mapping using virtual sensors and fusion of aerial images with sensor data from a ground vehicle
Örebro University, Department of Technology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, semantic mapping is understood to be the process of putting a tag or label on objects or regions in a map. This label should be interpretable by and have a meaning for a human. The use of semantic information has several application areas in mobile robotics. The largest area is in human-robot interaction where the semantics is necessary for a common understanding between robot and human of the operational environment. Other areas include localization through connection of human spatial concepts to particular locations, improving 3D models of indoor and outdoor environments, and model validation.

This thesis investigates the extraction of semantic information for mobile robots in outdoor environments and the use of semantic information to link ground-level occupancy maps and aerial images. The thesis concentrates on three related issues: i) recognition of human spatial concepts in a scene, ii) the ability to incorporate semantic knowledge in a map, and iii) the ability to connect information collected by a mobile robot with information extracted from an aerial image.

The first issue deals with a vision-based virtual sensor for classification of views (images). The images are fed into a set of learned virtual sensors, where each virtual sensor is trained for classification of a particular type of human spatial concept. The virtual sensors are evaluated with images from both ordinary cameras and an omni-directional camera, showing robust properties that can cope with variations such as changing season.

In the second part a probabilistic semantic map is computed based on an occupancy grid map and the output from a virtual sensor. A local semantic map is built around the robot for each position where images have been acquired. This map is a grid map augmented with semantic information in the form of probabilities that the occupied grid cells belong to a particular class. The local maps are fused into a global probabilistic semantic map covering the area along the trajectory of the mobile robot.

In the third part information extracted from an aerial image is used to improve the mapping process. Region and object boundaries taken from the probabilistic semantic map are used to initialize segmentation of the aerial image. Algorithms for both local segmentation related to the borders and global segmentation of the entire aerial image, exemplified with the two classes ground and buildings, are presented. Ground-level semantic information allows focusing of the segmentation of the aerial image to desired classes and generation of a semantic map that covers a larger area than can be built using only the onboard sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2008. , 170 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 30
Keyword [en]
semantic mapping, aerial image, mobile robot, supervised learning, semi-supervised learning
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Industrial Measurement Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2186ISBN: 978-91-7668-593-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-2186DiVA: diva2:135976
Public defence
2008-09-12, Hörsal T, Teknikhuset, Örebro, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-05-28 Created: 2008-05-28 Last updated: 2011-05-16Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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