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Sensory, attitudinal, and contextual aspects of the meal: health implications and connections with risk factors for coronary heart disease and obesity
Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det övergripande syftet var att undersöka mat- och måltidsrelaterade faktorer som bidragande orsak till övervikt och hjärt-kärlsjukdom.

I en sensorisk studie jämfördes individer som insjuknat i hjärtinfarkt med en frisk kontroll-grupp med avseende på preferens för mat med hög respektive låg fetthalt, smakkänslighet för grundsmakerna (surt, beskt, salt, sött, umami och metalliskt) samt det beska ämnet 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Undersökningsgruppen hade mer ogynnsam metabolisk profil, vilket kan indikera högre intag av fet, energirik mat och mindre intag av frukt och grönsaker, jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Det påvisades emellertid ingen signifikant skillnad i smakkänslighet mel-lan grupperna. När grupperna slogs samman konstaterades däremot att känslighet för surt var relaterat till lågt body mass index (BMI), och känslighet för beska var relaterat till lågt HDL-kolesterol samt högt BMI och bukfetma. Det indikerar ett samband mellan riskprofil, smak-känslighet och matvanor. Upplevd beska kan vara en bidragande orsak till låg konsumtion av frukt och grönsaker. Båda grupperna föredrog generellt mat med hög fetthalt, varför preferens för hög fetthalt i sig inte kan anses vara en bidragande riskfaktor för insjuknande i hjärtinfarkt. För hälften av rätterna påvisades emellertid ingen signifikant skillnad i preferens för hög- respek-tive låg fetthalt. För att undersöka hur sensoriska egenskaper förändras vid olika fetthalter stu-derades två såser med varierande smörmängd. Totalt sett minskade smakegenskaperna (tomat, vitlök, timjan, kyckling, syrlighet) när mer smör tillsattes, medan smörsmaken och såsernas vis-kositet ökade. Stor skillnad i smörmängd (energiinnehåll) frambringar däremot endast små smakförändringar.

I en enkätstudie påvisades att matvanor och inställning till mat och hälsa skilde sig mellan män och kvinnor samt beroende av BMI. En klusteranalys resulterade i tre grupper, varav en grupp med jämn könsfördelning som i genomsnitt hade högre BMI och sämre matvanor. I den gruppen ingick kvinnor som är mindre intresserade av sin hälsa och män som är mer fokuserade på mat som njutning, vilket indikerar att orsakerna till ohälsosamma matvanor skiljer sig mellan kvinnor och män. I en öppen fråga beskrevs essensen i en god måltid innefatta både krav på maten (råvaror, maträtter, menyer, sensoriska egenskaper samt näring och mättnad) och krav på sammanhanget (estetik, gemenskap, lugn och ro, och sinnesstämning). Att identifiera indivi-ders olika anspråk på en god måltid kan vara komplementära kunskaper till hjälp vid föränd-ring av mat- och måltidsvanor. Slutligen bidrog en litteraturfördjupning till kunskaper om mat- måltidsupplevelser med fokus på uppskattning och tillfredsställelse i relation till hälsotillstånd.

Resultaten indikerar att det är av betydelse att identifiera enskilda individers förutsättningar och preferenser för mat och måltider vad gäller smak, matvanor och kontext i vardagen för att underlätta intervention och hälsofrämjande arbete.

Abstract [en]

The overall aim was to study risk factors for obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD), in relation to food and meals. A case-control study of people diagnosed with CHD was used to evaluate preferences for full-fat versus low-fat versions of a range of foods, along with basic taste sensitivity and sensitivity to the bitter substance PROP. No significant differences in taste perception were obtained between the groups. However, in the pooled sample, a heightened sensitivity to sour taste was correlated with low BMI, while a heightened sensitiv-ity to bitter taste was correlated with low HDL-cholesterol, and high BMI and abdominal fat. This indicates a relationship between risk profile, taste sensitivity and food intake. Heightened sensitivity to bitter taste might result in lower consumption of fruit and vegeta-bles including those with a bitter tone. Preference related to total fat content per se was not confirmed as a risk factor for CHD. However, a less favourable metabolic profile were seen in the CHD group, indicating a higher intake of fat-rich and energy-rich food. The sensory effects of fat content were also evaluated, using two sauces as the vehicle. Overall, increased butter content resulted in decreased perception of all flavours except butter flavour, which increased, as did viscosity. However, a high fat content could not always be justified in terms of taste; large increases in energy content produced only small sensory differences.

Data were also collected through a survey on eating habits and attitudes to health and food consumption. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of a gender-mixed overweight group, with less healthy eating habits. This group seems to consist of women less interested in health and men more interested in getting pleasure from food than general, demonstrating different reasons for unhealthy eating between genders. The essence of a good meal was found to include a number of demands on both food (a restaurant-type meal, a proper meal, sensory experience, satisfying and nourishing, and primary product quality) and context (spirit of community, aesthetic experience, tranquillity, and frame of mind), which might be relevant to the goal of changing people’s eating habits. Additionally, a deeper understanding was gained about meal experiences, with a focus on acceptance and satisfaction in relation to health outcome. Overall, the present findings could be of interest in health promotion and intervention when identifying individuals’ opportunities for and requirements of good meals, starting with one’s own familiar taste and context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2008. , p. 119
Series
Örebro Studies in Culinary Arts and Meal Science, ISSN 1652-2974 ; 7
Keyword [en]
Abdominal fat, Basic tastes, Bitterness, BMI, Coronary heart disease, Dietary fat content, Eating context, Food, HDL-cholesterol, Health promotion, Intervention, Meal, Perception, Preference, PROP
Keyword [sv]
Beska, BMI, Bukfetma, Fetthalt, Grundsmaker, HDL-kolesterol, Hjärtinfarkt, Hälsa, Intervention, Mat, Måltidsmiljö, Preferens, PROP, Sensitivitet
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2488ISBN: 978-91-7668-627-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-2488DiVA, id: diva2:136311
Public defence
2008-10-31, Gastronomiska teatern, Måltidens hus, Sörälgsvägen 2, Grythyttan, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-10-07 Created: 2008-10-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The sensory effect of butter in culinary sacues
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The sensory effect of butter in culinary sacues
2007 (English)In: Journal of Foodservice, ISSN 1748-0142, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A common belief is that when butter is added to food, a more desired flavour develops and that other flavours are enhanced. The aim of this study was to investigate how different amounts of added butter affected the perceived sensory characteristics of tomato sauce and chicken velouté using sensory analysis. In addition, a preference test was performed for tomato sauce. As more butter was added, the intensity of butter flavour and the viscosity increased, and the other flavour, aroma and taste attributes tested were perceived as being less intense in varying magnitudes. No significant difference was obtained in the preference study, except liking of the appearance among the men who preferred the sauce containing less butter. The results show that a large amount of butter is not always essential, unless it is the flavour and aroma of butter itself that is sought, or if it is necessary to balance the flavour, taste and texture attributes. These results could have a positive health effect for consumers if the use of fat in restaurant kitchens is reduced.

Keyword
Butter, dietary fat, energy content, flavour, sauce, sensory evaluation
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3002 (URN)10.1111/j.1745-4506.2007.00044.x (DOI)
Available from: 2008-10-07 Created: 2008-10-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
2. Preference for full-fat over low-fat foods among individuals suffering from coronary heart disease and healthy controls
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preference for full-fat over low-fat foods among individuals suffering from coronary heart disease and healthy controls
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 489-497Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dietary behaviour can modify the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fat contributes to the sensory characteristics of many foods, but there are individual differences in liking for regular and reduced fat products. Preference for dietary fat might differ between healthy individuals and those of diagnosed CHD status. Preference for full-fat versus low-fat foods was assessed in a group suffering from CHD (N = 24) and a healthy control group (N = 41). Preferences were evaluated using a series of paired preference tests including 34 food pairs. Further, patterns across fat preference and a range of known risk factors for CHD were examined. The study was conducted in Sweden; March 2004 until May 2006. Overall the full-fat food items were preferred to the low-fat alternatives by both patients and control participants. The pattern of preference responses diverged significantly between patients and controls on only four of the 34 food items, in both directions, why preference related to total fat content per se is not confirmed as differentiating significantly between a group diagnosed with CHD compared to a healthy control group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-9002 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.08.001 (DOI)000271358600017 ()19682474 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70149085385 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2008-10-07 Created: 2008-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Taste perception: an underlying risk factor for coronary heart disease?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taste perception: an underlying risk factor for coronary heart disease?
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15592 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Association of gender, body mass index (BMI), eating habits, and attitudes in a middle-aged Swedish population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of gender, body mass index (BMI), eating habits, and attitudes in a middle-aged Swedish population
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15593 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
5. Food and context: the essence of a good meal and a potential model for promoting health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food and context: the essence of a good meal and a potential model for promoting health
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15594 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
6. Application of the meal environment as a tool to improve health?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of the meal environment as a tool to improve health?
2008 (English)In: Journal of Foodservice, ISSN 1748-0142, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 80-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper was to look into meal experiences with a focus on acceptance and satisfaction in institutional eating locations, primarily in the caring sector. The situation and the context have the ability to influence the acceptability of a meal, as well as the amount eaten. Context factors can be at least important in determining acceptance of food and beverage as sensory factors. Variables such as location, physical and social environment, expectations, description of foods and choice can have an impact on the acceptance of a meal. In addition, proper response to guests' needs and requests can lead to satisfaction. Improvement of the atmosphere in the eating location during the meal has been shown to be a meaningful way to stabilize health and nutritional status, as well as having an impact on the energy intake in patients. When the food and beverage meets certain expectations, the room and the meeting can enhance the atmosphere, and therefore the entire quality of the meal experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub., 2008
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3007 (URN)10.1111/j.1745-4506.2007.00084.x (DOI)
Available from: 2008-10-07 Created: 2008-10-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Rapp [Nordin], Erika

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