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Cost efficency of nonresponse rate reduction efforts: an evaluation approach
Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nonresponse, the failure to obtain complete measurement on all sample elements, is an increasing problem in sample surveys. Efforts to reduce the nonresponse rate are expensive and their effect may not be as desired. To allocate the limited resources to where they achieve the most error reduction, it is important to consider the cost-efficiency of efforts. This thesis proposes an approach to evaluate the cost-efficiency of the nonresponse rate reduction efforts for a general survey setup, assuming a direct element sampling design. A theoretical framework, under which both the error and the cost can be evaluated, is introduced. The framework extends the existing notion of response probabilities as fixed quantities by introducing a sequence of response probabilities, taking into account the actions and efforts taken by the survey administration during the data collection period.

In addition to the introductory part, the thesis consists of four papers. In the first paper, the basic theoretical framework for evaluation is developed and expressions for the nonresponse bias of some common reweighting estimators are derived under this framework. Furthermore, expressions for the bias difference are given, general expressions as well as expressions under different specific scenarios. In the second paper, expressions of the total variance are derived for the same estimators and under the same framework as in the first paper. In the third paper, the basic theoretical framework in the first two papers is extended to incorporate survey costs, and a cost efficiency evaluation approach is introduced for an ideal situation where all required quantities are known. The approach consists of three steps, involving pairwise comparisons of cost-efficiency for time points during the data collection period and evaluation of point estimator bias and variance. Two different measures of the cost efficiency are proposed and compared, theoretically and through a small numerical study. In the fourth paper, the evaluation approach is extended to situations that may occur in practice. In the more favorable situations considered, unknown quantities are estimated through Monte Carlo simulations.Simulations are also used in the cases where unverifiable assumptions must be made about unknown quantities, as this facilitates comparisons of the effect on conclusions under different assumptions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2008. , p. 27
Series
Örebro Studies in Statistics, ISSN 1651-8608 ; 3
Keyword [en]
nonresponse bias, follow-ups, response distribution, resource allocation, cost efficiency, evaluation, nonresponse error, Monte Carlo simulations
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Statistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2588ISBN: 978-91-7668-641-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-2588DiVA, id: diva2:136438
Public defence
2008-12-18, Bion, Forumhuset, Fakultetsgatan, Örebro, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-11-03 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Nonresponse bias for some common estimators and its change over time in the data collection process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonresponse bias for some common estimators and its change over time in the data collection process
2004 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In most surveys, the risk of nonresponse is a factor taken into account at the planning stage. Commonly, resources are set aside for a follow-up procedure which aims at reducing the nonresponse rate. However, we should pay attention to the effect of nonresponse, rather than the nonresponse rate itself.

When considering nonresponse error, i.e. bias and variance, it is not obvious that the resources spent on nonresponse rate reduction efforts are time and money well spent. In this paper we address this issue, focusing on the effect of follow-ups on nonresponse bias. The nonresponse biases for some common estimators are derived, and the change in bias for these estimators is studied under a setup that allows us to take into account the data collection process, and follow-up efforts in particular.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2004. p. 37
Series
ESI Working Paper Series ; 2004:13
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3023 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-03 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
2. The variance of some common estimators and its components under nonresponse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The variance of some common estimators and its components under nonresponse
2005 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In most surveys, the risk of nonresponse is a factor taken into account at the planning stage. Commonly, resources are set aside for a follow-up procedure which aims at reducing the nonresponse rate. However, we should pay attention to the effect of nonresponse, rather than the nonresponse rate itself. When considering nonresponse error, i.e. bias and variance, it is not obvious that the resources spent on nonresponse rate reduction efforts are time and money well spent.

In this paper we address this issue, continuing the work begun in Tångdahl (2004), now focusing on the effect of follow-ups on estimator variance. The components of the variance for some common estimators are derived under a setup that allows us to take into account the data collection process, and follow-up efforts in particular.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2005. p. 33
Series
ESI working paper series, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 2005:9
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3024 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-03 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
3. On the evaluation of the cost efficiency of nonresponse rate reduction efforts: some general considerations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the evaluation of the cost efficiency of nonresponse rate reduction efforts: some general considerations
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Virtually every survey today suffers from nonresponse to some extent. To counter this, survey administrators and researchers have a host of methods at their disposal, many of which are both expensive and time consuming. Reduction efforts, aiming at reducing the nonresponse rate, are an important part of the data collection process, but commonly also a substantial part of the available survey budget.

We propose that the effciency of the reduction efforts be evaluated in relation to the costs. In this paper we point in the direction of an evaluation procedure, using a measure of cost effciency, that can be used in an "ideal" situation, where all relevant quantities are known. It can not be applied directly in practice, but will serve as a point of reference when practically feasible approaches are developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2006. p. 31
Series
ESI working paper series, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 2006:5
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3025 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-03 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
4. A simulation approach to evaluate the cost efficiency of nonresponse follow-ups
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation approach to evaluate the cost efficiency of nonresponse follow-ups
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3026 (URN)
Available from: 2008-11-03 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Westling, Sara

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