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The effect of light and iron(II)/iron(III) on the distribution of Tl(I)/Tl(III) in fresh water systems
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 634-640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The distribution of aqueous Tl(I)/Tl(III) as a function of light exposure and solution properties was studied by quantifying the oxidation states after separation with ion chromatography and on-line detection with ICP-MS. Ultraviolet irradiation of aqueous solutions containing 1 μg l−1 Tl(III) and in equilibrium with the atmosphere increases the reduction rate. In systems with photoreduction of Fe(III)(aq) a quantitative oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) was observed, notably at low pH. The process is reversible, as indicated by formation of Tl(I) when the irradiated systems were kept in the dark. In systems with colloidal silica-stabilised ferrihydrite, UV irradiation also leads to oxidation of Tl(I)(aq), but not quantitatively. It is suggested that adsorption of thallium to the ferrihydrite determines the rate of oxidation. Detectable, but not quantitative, oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) took place when natural water samples with 1 μg l−1 Tl(I)(aq) were exposed to either sunlight or UV-light. For these samples, the reduction was not quantitative when they were kept in the dark for 24 h. The results suggest that the light dependent iron cycle in fresh water systems strongly influences the redox state of thallium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 8, no 6, p. 634-640
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3057DOI: 10.1039/B516445AOAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3057DiVA, id: diva2:136701
Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental levels of thallium: influence of redox properties and anthropogenic sources
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental levels of thallium: influence of redox properties and anthropogenic sources
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thallium is a highly toxic element that humans are exposed to mainly by consumption of drinking water and vegetables grown in soil with high thallium content but also through inhalation of particles in the air. Thallium is also present in fossil fuels, alloys, and in electronic utilities. The increasing use of the element and emissions from notably energy production has lead to a higher load on the surface of the Earth. This study aims at increasing the knowledge about the behaviour of thallium in aquatic environments. Focus has been on the redox chemistry of thallium in relation to its mobility, which is of great importance because Tl(I) and Tl(III) have very different properties in this respect.

The relationship between Tl(I) and Tl(III) in surface waters from contaminated and uncontaminated environments was examined by ion chromatography connected on line to ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). It was found in controlled systems that even though Tl(III) is thermodynamically unstable under fresh water conditions Tl(I) was oxidised in the presence of light and iron(III). This was also confirmed in field studies. When lake water samples were exposed to light, Tl(I) was oxidised and thallium was lost from the solution. The most likely explanation for this was adsorption of thallium to particle surfaces.

The concentration of thallium in Swedish lakes and soil were measured. In unpolluted lakes the concentration ranges between 4.5-12 ng/l, the sediment concentration was 0.07-1.46 mg/kg. The anthropogenic load was found to have increased since the end of the Second World War although concentrations above background were found since the early industrialisation. In contaminated areas the concentration in soil ranges from 0.64-88 mg/kg, high concentrations were found in systems with alum shale and in soil exposed to runoff from a lead and zinc enrichment plant.

The mobilisation of thallium from solid phases in contaminated areas was dependent on pH and about 50% of the leachable content was mobilised already at pH 5-6. Once it had been released to water it was highly mobile. These conditions suggest that in a large part of the Swedish environment a high mobility of thallium can be expected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2006. p. 44
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 5
Keywords
thallium, Tl(I), Tl(III), separation, ion chromatography, fresh water, sediment, mine waste, fly ash, redistribution, ICP-MS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-356 (URN)91-7668-474-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-03-31, HSP1, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Karlsson, UlrikaKarlsson, StefanDüker, Anders

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