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Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden - Part A: sediment properties and chronological indicators
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. (Forskningscentrum Människa-Teknik-Miljö)
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. (Forskningscentrum Människa-Teknik-Miljö)
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. (Forskningscentrum Människa-Teknik-Miljö)
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. (Forskningscentrum Människa-Teknik-Miljö)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2674-4994
2006 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 721-731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sediment cores from four small oligotrophic boreal lakes, with minor acidification, in remote regions of central Sweden were used for historical interpretation of their metal content, with focus on Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in Lake Stensjön, which has the longest sediment record (at least two centuries according to 210Pb dating). Comparison is made with the other three lakes. Major and trace elements in lake water, porewater and the acid-leached (HNO3) solid sediment phase was analysed with ICP-MS. In addition, general lake water chemistry, TOC and principal anions were measured in the aqueous phases. Redistribution processes were interpreted from geochemical modelling. The solid/solution distribution of pe/pH sensitive elements, indicates a minor diagenetic redistribution and the concentration profiles are therefore suitable for chronological evaluation. The ratios of Al, Ti, Sc and V, indicated a qualitative shift of sedimenting material a century ago, which did not have any impact on the retention of trace elements. Lead had a concentration profile, supported by the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, where it was possible to distinguish preindustrial conditions, early industrialisation in Europe, industrialisation in Sweden, and the use of leaded petrol after the Second World War. Cadmium showed a similar concentration pattern. The zinc profile resembled that of cadmium, but with less enrichment. Local lithogenic sources are believed to be quantitatively important. The solid/solution distribution (Kd) was independent of depth for all four elements. The sediment concentrations of copper and zinc are not related to early industrialisation but its concentration has doubled since the Second World War.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 8, no 7, p. 721-731
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3059DOI: 10.1039/B601944GPubMedID: 16826285OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3059DiVA, id: diva2:136720
Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Lake sediment as environmental archive: natural and anthropogenic influence on the chronology of trace elements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lake sediment as environmental archive: natural and anthropogenic influence on the chronology of trace elements
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this thesis is the historical pollution of some seldom-monitored trace elements (SMTEs; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) that have been involuntarily released for several thousands of years but whose usage have increased during the industrial era. Sediment cores from four rural lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden, and two urban lakes have been used as environmental archives for chronological studies. The historical development of the SMTEs is put in perspective of frequently monitored elements (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) that serve as a well-known anthropogenic signal. Dating of the sediments is made with 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu as well as acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio. The impact of diagenetic redistribution is included, when necessary.

The results show that site-specific reference concentrations are required in order to estimate the present pollution as well as its historical development. Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of transport in rural lakes and the concentrations are lowered towards the north. It is not possible from this material, however, to separate the direct deposition on the lake surfaces from the contribution from their catchments. From 21Pb, acid-leachable Pb and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio a minimum of four periods of pollution can be discerned. For the SMTEs the quantitatively most important period of pollution took place from the Second World War until present. The growth of the domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe and the British Isles are also distinguishable. The pollution history of Ag, In and Sb goes back for several centuries as a result of metal processing whereas the levels of thallium mainly increase as a result of industrialisation. For Ag and Tl in-sediment diagenetic redistribution limits the precision of the historical estimate. The preliminary interpretation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu indicates that they are less suitable as chronological markers in the system studied. The urban impact on the trace metal sediment content in the urban lakes was lower than expected, except for Au. There is a large impact from hydrological conditions on the studied system why further investigations are recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2006. p. 54
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 9
Keyword
lake sediment, environmental pollution, trace elements, chronology, diagenesis, Ag, Be, Ga, In, Pb, Sb, Tl
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-372 (URN)91-7668-473-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-03-30, HSP1, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-03-09 Created: 2006-03-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Karlsson, StefanGrahn, EvastinaDüker, AndersBäckström, Mattias

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