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Characterisation of organic materials from incineration residues
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The organic material present in incineration residues has been examined. Water leachable organic material was characterised and classified into hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids, neutrals and bases. Changes of the organic material during weathering were followed. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel in a heating-plant, as well as in a biofuel and papermill ash mixture were determined.

The total amount of organic material was higher in fresh bottom ash than in aged ash after open-air storage. Concentrations of organic carbon in the aqueous extracts were similar, resulting in increasing percentage of leachable organic carbon in course of time. The largest fractions of organic carbon in aqueous extracts from fresh municipal solid waste incineration ash were classified as hydrophilic neutrals and bases. During weathering, the composition of water leachable organic carbon changed. In aqueous leachates from a four-year-old ash deposit, some 5070% of leachable organic carbon was classified as organic acids.

Levels of PAHs in the ashes varied widely. In MSWI bottom ash and heating-plant fly ash the levels of PAHs were low, but the mixed biofuel and papermill ash contained PAH levels exceeding the Swedish generic guidelines for PAHs in soil. The amount of carcinogenic PAHs in weathered MSWI bottom ash was, in some cases, found to exceed the Swedish generic guidelines for sensitive land use. However, the results imply that the amount of PAHs in fresh and weathered bottom ash are similar, indicating that the PAHs are strongly bound to the ash and not released to the environment after deposition on e.g. an open-air landfill. In heating-plant fly ash, the levels of carcinogenic PAHs were related to the amount of sleepers in the fuel. The distributions of PAHs were similar in all ashes and were dominated by low molecular weight PAHs such as naphthalene and phenanthrene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek , 2003. , p. 48
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 3
Keywords [en]
ash, biofuel, waste, residues, MSWI, incineration, leaching, organic carbon, organic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44ISBN: 91-7668-335-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-44DiVA, id: diva2:136804
Public defence
2003-04-11, Hörsal Bio, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 09:30
Opponent
Available from: 2003-04-11 Created: 2003-04-11 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Analysis of water leachable organic components in incineration residues
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of water leachable organic components in incineration residues
2000 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 78, no 3-4, p. 305-313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The composition of water leachable organics in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues is not well known. Therefore the utilisation of ashes is restricted due to the concern about their long-term environmental impact. Previous studies have focused on some highly toxic organic compounds present only in trace amounts. It is also important to know the composition of the bulk organic matter since dissolved organic carbon can alter the leachability of metals. In order to characterise water leachable organic matter in incineration residues a fractionation procedure using polymeric adsorbents was successfully developed and applied. The technique uses XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in tandem and has been implemented on bottom ash samples from two incineration plants in Sweden in order to characterise the bulk organic matter.

Keywords
ash, water leaching, incineration, fractionation
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15897 (URN)10.1080/03067310008041349 (DOI)000167872200009 ()
Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Variation of organic carbon in MSWI bottom ash during weathering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation of organic carbon in MSWI bottom ash during weathering
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15899 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in weathered bottom ash from incineration of municipal solid waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in weathered bottom ash from incineration of municipal solid waste
2003 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in weathered bottom ash from different municipal solid waste incinerators. The sum of the 16 "USEPA" PAHs was found to vary from 480 to 3590 mug/kg. The amounts of carcinogenic PAHs were between 89 and 438 mug/kg ash. The maximum levels of carcinogenic PAHs exceed the Swedish generic guidelines for sensitive land use. The results showed that the amount of PAHs in fresh and weathered bottom ash are similar, indicating that the PAHs are strongly bound to the ash and only limited amounts are released to'the surroundings. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
PAH, bottom ash, weathering, residues, generic guidelines, MSWI
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15895 (URN)10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00299-6 (DOI)000184994300003 ()
Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in incineration ashes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in incineration ashes
2003 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 311, no 1-3, p. 221-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analysed in weathered bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration, fly ash from a mixed heating plant and an ash mixture from different kinds of biofuels. Although of different origin and age, all three ashes are evaluated in different small-scale fill applications. The ultimate goal is the usage of these ashes on a larger scale. The samples were Soxhlet extracted and analysed using GC/MS in the full scan mode. The sum of the 16 US EPA PAHs was found to vary from 140 mug/kg up to more than 77 000 mug/kg. Total amounts of PAHs were similar in bottom ash and in fly ash. The concentration in the mixed biofuel ash was more than 10 times higher, and exceeded the generic guidelines for PAHs in soil set by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The patterns of the individual PAHs normalised to the total concentration of PAHs were found to be very similar for all the three ashes. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were the dominating PAHs for all ash samples, but the mixed biofuel ash also contained high levels of fluoranthene and pyrene. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
PAH, bottom ash, fly ash, sleeper, road filling, biofuel, paper-mill
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15896 (URN)10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00168-2 (DOI)000184091300016 ()
Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
5. Dioxin-like compounds in incineration ashes: a comparison between bioanalytical screening and chemical analysis of PAHs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dioxin-like compounds in incineration ashes: a comparison between bioanalytical screening and chemical analysis of PAHs
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15900 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-14 Created: 2011-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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