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Availability and use of natural tree holes by cavity nesting birds in a Swedish deciduous forest
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
1998 (English)In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, E-ISSN 2213-1175, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cavities in trees are an important resource as nest sites or shelter for many birds and mammals. The aim of this study was to quantify the density of cavities, their characteristics, and their origin, and the implication these have on nest site choice by hole-nesting birds. The study was carried out in a deciduous forest in south central Sweden during two years. The forest was dominated by Pendunculate Oak Quercus robur, Norway Maple Acer plantanoides, Small-leaved Lime Tilia cordata, Rowan Sorbus aucuparia, birch Betula pubescens/verrucosa and Aspen Populus tremula, in decreasing order of abundance. We found an average cavity density of 60.4 ha-1. Limb holes were the most abundant type found (53%) and were also most frequently used by hole-nesting birds (64.8%). Pendunculate Oak and Aspen were the two tree species richest in cavities. Limb holes dominated in Pendunculate Oak while woodpecker-excavated holes dominated in aspen. Cavities with occupied bird nests had narrower entrances, were located higher up, had smaller volumes, thicker walls and a smaller circumference of the stem at the hole compared with unoccupied cavities. Limb holes, woodpecker holes and other hole types were used as nest sites by birds in proportion to their frequency of occurrence in the forest. Each year only 5-10% of available cavities attracted breeding birds. The most salient features that emerge from these results are the high density of cavities and their low occupancy rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1998. Vol. 86, no 1, p. 109-119
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biologi med ekologisk inriktning
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3138OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3138DiVA, id: diva2:137120
Available from: 2004-05-07 Created: 2004-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biodiversity and green infrastructure in urban landscapes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodiversity and green infrastructure in urban landscapes
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Biologisk mångfald och grön infrastruktur i urbana landskap
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, I evaluate the extent to which biodiversity is affected, and taken into consideration by, urban planning. Based on landscape ecology, I apply an interdisciplinary approach. In addition to natural science, I have included social and political sciences, as methods from these two disciplines were required to study issues dealing with both biodiversity and urban planning.

Urbanisation affects biodiversity in several ways. For example, changes in vegetation structures as well as an increased fragmentation of natural habitats will take place. In a fragmented environment an increased nest predation rate occurs. In the smaller spatial scale, predation rate was found to be higher closer to the edge of natural habitat patches than further inside. I also carried out research in order to identify the local and regional effects that cities have on compositional and structural elements of biodiversity. The amount and quality of green space and natural vegetation increased from the centre to the periphery of the city. Avian species richness showed the same trend with the exception of avian generalists, which showed the opposite trend. Certain qualities such as old-growth trees and dead wood, as well as availability of green space, were identified as being important for avian diversity. These findings emphasise the importance of urban green space with natural structures to maintain high ecological diversity.

Based on analyses of policy documents, I examined whether Swedish local authorities and planners take urban green spaces into consideration as potential multifunctional systems, including the maintenance of biodiversity. The result showed that Swedish planners and local decision-makers have not fully understood the multiple uses of urban green space, for example, the same area can act as a recreation area, improve the local climate, and maintain biodiversity.

A normative model for conservation planning in urban landscapes was defined and operationalised by using landscape ecological principles. Urban planners were interviewed about their interest, ability, and knowledge with respect to planning for functional networks of green spaces in relation to the normative model. The unanimous view was that planners were interested in the concept of biodiversity. However, they were restricted by the extent of their knowledge, by personnel lacking suitable qualifications, and by inadequacies within their organisations. To deal with this, better integration of natural, social, and political sciences in education, as well as policy implementation should be developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2004. p. 46
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 2
Keywords
Biologi, Birds in cities, Communication between sciences, Conservation planning, Landscape ecology, Swedish green planning, Urban green space, Urban planning, Urban vegetation, Biologi med ekologisk inriktning
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biologi med ekologisk inriktning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69 (URN)91-7668-387-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-05-28, Hörsal P 2, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-05-07 Created: 2004-05-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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