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Solid-phase extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma: comparison with an open column extraction method
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6217-8857
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4959-2807
2005 (English)In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A solid phase extraction (SPE) method in combination with silica gel cleanup to analyse tri-to heptabrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma was validated. All congeners showed recoveries over 70% except for BDE #183, which showed recoveries around 45%. The method was tested on 21 individual plasma samples which were extracted with both the SPE method and an open column extraction method using Hydromatrix. Method detection limits were of the same order of magnitude for both methods, ranging from 0.0076 to 0.13 ng g−1 (l.w.) depending on the congener. The SPE extraction method meets the demand for a faster, less solvent-and sample-demanding method with lower contamination risk due to fewer steps compared to the open column extraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 67-73
National Category
Chemical Sciences Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3143DOI: 10.1365/s10337-004-0461-zOAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3143DiVA, id: diva2:137130
Available from: 2006-10-13 Created: 2006-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Levels of brominated flame retardants in humans and their environment: occupational and home exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of brominated flame retardants in humans and their environment: occupational and home exposure
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Plasma from workers at an electronic dismantling plant were analysed for tri- to heptaBDEs (brominated diphenyl ethers), during 18 months. The different exposed groups showed concentrations ranging from 0.06to 2.8 ng g-1 (l.w.). Only BDE #153 and #183 showed elevated levels compared to the general population in Sweden. The levels in the workers were approximately one order of magnitude higher. No clear trend of increased BDE levels was seen during the study period, nor was there a reduction of the plasma concentration during and after the vacation.

Air levels of tri- to decaBDEs, BTBPE (1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane) and DeBDethane (1,2-bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane) ranging from 0.082 to 370 ng m-3 were determined at the same electronic dismantling facility. A comparison was made to the levels reported in this facility before an increase of the production volume. The levels of tri- to hexaBDEs, the main compounds in the commercial PentaBDE mixture, were very similar 2001-02 and 2005. Hepta- to decaBDEs, which are the main components in the Octa- and DecaBDE mixtures, were about three to five times higher in 2005 than in 2001-02. The mean level for BTBPE was two times higher 2001-02 while the concentration of DeBDethane measured 73 times higher 2005.

Levels of tri- to decaBDEs, BTBPE and DeBDethane were also determined in air, dust and human plasma from households. The levels of the individual BDEs in the plasma samples varied between <0.41 ng g-1 (l.w.) to 17 ng g-1 (l.w). BDE #28 and #47 were present in all air samples, with mean values of 0.015 and 0.12 ng m-3, respectively. BDE #209 was only found in one air sample at a concentration above the detection limit. DeBDethane was detected in only one sample, at a level of 0.023 ng m-3. All the analytes were found in the dust samples at levels ranging from 0.51 to 1600 ng g-1, the highest concentrations were found for BDE #209. DeBDethane was among the most abundant BFRs in the dust at a mean concentration of 47 ng g-1. The concentrations of the sumBDE showed a positive relationship in dust and plasma.

Eggs from Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in the Faroe Islands were sampled for BFRs to establish the levels in remote regions. . The content of tri- to heptaBDEs, BDE #209 and BTBPE were determined in nine samples in concentrations ranging from non-detectable (< 0.02 ng g−1 l.w.) to 7 ng g−1(l.w.). BTBPE was detected in eight samples at a mean level of 0.11 ng g−1 (l.w).

All work included substantial method development and adaption of existing methods. Validation of a solid phase extraction (SPE) method to analyse tri- to heptabrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma was performed. The SPE extraction method was found to be faster and less solvent- and sample-demanding, compared to the previously used open column extraction based method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2006. p. 75
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 7
Keyword
PBDE, BTBPE, DeBDethane, plasma, air, dust, Northern fulmar, egg, household, occupational exposure
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-694 (URN)91-7668-499-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-11-03, Hörsal P1, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-10-13 Created: 2006-10-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
2. Exposure to brominated flame retardants in electronics recycling: air and human plasma levels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to brominated flame retardants in electronics recycling: air and human plasma levels
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and 1,2-bis(2,3,4,5,6-pentabromophenyl)ethane (DeBDethane) were analysed in air and blood samples from workers at an electronics recycling facility. The samples were collected regularly for 18 months and were analysed by isomer specific GC/MS analysis in both electron impact (EI) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI) mode.

In addition, triiodotyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were monitored and put in relation to the workers’ PBDE concentration in blood.

Breathing zone air samples showed that the electronics dismantlers were highly exposed to PBDE #209 in comparison with other workers in the facility (30 ng/m3 and 8 ng/m3, respectively). However, for BTBPE and the other PBDE congeners no such difference was found. It was also shown that when dismantling small electronic products (computers and household electronics) the air levels were higher than when dismantling

larger products (photocopiers). Monitoring dust fractions (“total dust”, inhalable dust and respirable dust) revealed that the PBDE #209 concentration was more than ten times higher in the inhalable dust fraction than the traditionally used “total dust” fraction (“total” 15 ng/m3, inhalable 192 ng/m3), which was not the case for the other BFRs.

The sampler for inhalable dust collects particles of larger size more efficiently than the “total” dust sampler. PBDE #209 was found to bind to a higher extent to larger particles in the air. However, PBDE #209 was also present in the respirable fraction (3.1 ng/m3) that reaches the alveolar region in the lungs, making it available for uptake.

The levels of PBDEs detected in the workers’ blood were within the range of the general population in Sweden, except for PBDE #183 and #209 which were slightly elevated (1.2 pmol/g l.w. and 5.7 pmol/g l.w., respectively) among the dismantlers. No clinical effect could be seen on the thyroid hormone status in the workers, caused by the PBDE concentration. Steady state blood concentration estimations based on levels in the respirable dust fraction suggested that the increase for PBDE #209 was due to occupational air-borne dust.

To study biological samples with high levels of PBDEs to identify possible metabolites from PBDEs and other bromine containing compounds, whales from the Mediterranean Sea were analysed. PBDEs were found at high concentrations in the range of 66-8100 ng/g l.w.. Three methoxylated tetraBDEs (MeO-TeBDE) were identified in the whale samples at a range of 2-630 ng/g l.w.. Several unidentified organobromine compounds were also detected in the whales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2004. p. 73
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 5
Keyword
PBDE, BTBPE, DeBDethane, Thyroid hormone, Occupational exposure, Human plasma, Air sampling, MeO-PBDE, PBDE, BTBPE, DeBDetan, Sköldkörtelhormon, Yrkesexponering, Human plasma, Luftprovtagning, MeO-PBDE
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-91 (URN)91-7668-422-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-17, Hörsal P 2, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-26 Created: 2004-11-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Karlsson, MarieJulander, Annelivan Bavel, BertLindström, Gunilla

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