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Levels of brominated flame retardants in Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) eggs from the Faroe Islands
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6217-8857
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2006 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 840-846Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eggs from Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) were sampled in the Faroe Islands. The content of the brominated flame retardants tri- to decabromodiphenyl ethers (BDEs) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were determined in nine samples in concentrations ranging from non-detectable to 7 ng g− 1(l.w.). The BDE levels were similar as in an earlier study of BDE levels in the fulmar eggs from the Faroe Islands but 10–1000 times lower compared to studies of eggs from seabirds and birds of prey from Europe. The two hexaBDEs #153 and #154 were the most abundant congeners, which represented around 50% of the total mean BDE concentration. The levels of BDE #209 were below the limit of detection (1.24 ng g− 1 l.w.) except for one sample, which showed a concentration of 7.18 ng g− 1 l.w. BTBPE was detected in eight samples and the mean level was 0.11 ng g− 1 l.w. This concentration was 150 times lower than the average total BDE concentration (including BDEs #28, #47, #100, #99, #154, #153, #183, #209). BTBPE has only been detected once before in biota. Also other bromo-containing compounds were detected in the fulmar eggs. One group identified was the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), but because of the absence of reference standards in the lab, these could not be quantified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 840-846
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3147DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.02.050OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3147DiVA, id: diva2:137134
Available from: 2006-10-13 Created: 2006-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Levels of brominated flame retardants in humans and their environment: occupational and home exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of brominated flame retardants in humans and their environment: occupational and home exposure
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Plasma from workers at an electronic dismantling plant were analysed for tri- to heptaBDEs (brominated diphenyl ethers), during 18 months. The different exposed groups showed concentrations ranging from 0.06to 2.8 ng g-1 (l.w.). Only BDE #153 and #183 showed elevated levels compared to the general population in Sweden. The levels in the workers were approximately one order of magnitude higher. No clear trend of increased BDE levels was seen during the study period, nor was there a reduction of the plasma concentration during and after the vacation.

Air levels of tri- to decaBDEs, BTBPE (1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane) and DeBDethane (1,2-bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane) ranging from 0.082 to 370 ng m-3 were determined at the same electronic dismantling facility. A comparison was made to the levels reported in this facility before an increase of the production volume. The levels of tri- to hexaBDEs, the main compounds in the commercial PentaBDE mixture, were very similar 2001-02 and 2005. Hepta- to decaBDEs, which are the main components in the Octa- and DecaBDE mixtures, were about three to five times higher in 2005 than in 2001-02. The mean level for BTBPE was two times higher 2001-02 while the concentration of DeBDethane measured 73 times higher 2005.

Levels of tri- to decaBDEs, BTBPE and DeBDethane were also determined in air, dust and human plasma from households. The levels of the individual BDEs in the plasma samples varied between <0.41 ng g-1 (l.w.) to 17 ng g-1 (l.w). BDE #28 and #47 were present in all air samples, with mean values of 0.015 and 0.12 ng m-3, respectively. BDE #209 was only found in one air sample at a concentration above the detection limit. DeBDethane was detected in only one sample, at a level of 0.023 ng m-3. All the analytes were found in the dust samples at levels ranging from 0.51 to 1600 ng g-1, the highest concentrations were found for BDE #209. DeBDethane was among the most abundant BFRs in the dust at a mean concentration of 47 ng g-1. The concentrations of the sumBDE showed a positive relationship in dust and plasma.

Eggs from Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in the Faroe Islands were sampled for BFRs to establish the levels in remote regions. . The content of tri- to heptaBDEs, BDE #209 and BTBPE were determined in nine samples in concentrations ranging from non-detectable (< 0.02 ng g−1 l.w.) to 7 ng g−1(l.w.). BTBPE was detected in eight samples at a mean level of 0.11 ng g−1 (l.w).

All work included substantial method development and adaption of existing methods. Validation of a solid phase extraction (SPE) method to analyse tri- to heptabrominated diphenyl ethers in human plasma was performed. The SPE extraction method was found to be faster and less solvent- and sample-demanding, compared to the previously used open column extraction based method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2006. p. 75
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 7
Keywords
PBDE, BTBPE, DeBDethane, plasma, air, dust, Northern fulmar, egg, household, occupational exposure
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-694 (URN)91-7668-499-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-11-03, Hörsal P1, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-10-13 Created: 2006-10-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Karlsson, Marievan Bavel, Bert

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