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Impact of international competition on Swedish manufacturing: individual and firm-level evidence from the 1990s
Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of four papers examining the impact of international competition on Swedish manufacturing and labor market during the 1990s. By using detailed individual and firm-level information I aim to investigate how increased exposure to international trade, in terms of both export orientation and import penetration, affects technology development, profitability and wage structure.

Paper [1] (co-authored with Pär Hansson) is a study on links between exporting behavior and productivity. We find support for the self-selection effect of firms, i.e. more productive firms are more likely to enter into the export market. In addition, we obtain evidence indicating that export enhances firm-level productivity.

By recognizing the intra-industry heterogeneity in terms of exporting behavior and difference in productivity level among firms, we quantify both within-firm and reallocation effects that contribute to overall manufacturing productivity growth. The decomposition shows that the within-firm effect dominates, but intra-industry reallocation towards more productive firms has also taken place. A further breakdown of these two effects into domestic and export components shows that productivity growth appears to be more rapid for large exporting firms.

Paper [2] analyzes the impact of import penetration on firm-level market power, measured by (average) price-cost margin. The total imports are divided into five country groups to investigate the differential strengths of the pro-competitive effects depending on the countries of origin. The EU-members and the EU-candidate countries (the recent EU members) are of special interest in the context of increased economic integration.

The results indicate that imports from the EU-candidate countries have substantial disciplinary effects on firm-level market power, while imports from the EU-member countries only appear to have an impact in firms with large market shares in highly concentrated industries.

Paper [3] examines how import competition from different origins and the presence of product differentiation affect market power of Swedish manufacturing firms during the 1990s. Applying Roeger’s method (1995), I perform the empirical analysis based on detailed firm-level data and estimate an average mark-up level of Swedish manufacturing firms.

The general finding is that imports from both European countries and other high-income countries outside Europe impose disciplinary effects on price-cost margins of Swedish manufacturing firms. The strongest effect is from EU candidate countries (the recent EU members). However, the competitive pressure associated with import is relaxed in the presence of product differentiation.

Paper [4] (co-authored with Lihong Yun) examines the inter-industry wage structure in Swedish manufacturing sectors using matched employer-employee data for the period 1996 to 2000. First, we use detailed individual and job characteristics to estimate industry-specific and time-varying wage premiums. Second, we examine the impact of international trade on the wage premiums, after controlling for effects of domestic competition and technical progress.

Our results indicate that industries that face intensive import competition from low-income countries have lower wage premiums. Surprisingly, the wage premiums are not related to export intensities. Furthermore, technical progress, measured by investment in R&D activity, appears to enhance inter-industry wage premiums.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek , 2004. , p. 11
Series
Örebro Studies in Economics, ISSN 1651-8896 ; 4
Keywords [en]
Nationalekonomi, export, firm-level productivity, reallocation, import discipline, market structure, mark-up, product differentiation, matched employer-employee data, inter-industry wage structure, nationalekonomi
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74ISBN: 91-7668-410-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-74DiVA, id: diva2:137211
Public defence
2004-09-24, Hörsal C, Långhuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-09-02 Created: 2004-09-02 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exports as an indicator on or promoter of successful Swedish manufacturing firms in the 1990s
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exports as an indicator on or promoter of successful Swedish manufacturing firms in the 1990s
2004 (English)In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 415-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study the link between exports and productivity at the firm level. Like in previous studies we get support for the hypothesis that more productive firms self-select into the export market. In addition, and contrary to many of the former studies, we also obtain evidence that exporting further increases firm productivity. Exporting firms appear to have significantly higher productivity than nonexporting. Moreover, exporters—mainly firms that increase their export intensities—have higher output growth than nonexporters. Reallocation of resources between firms may then have contributed to overall manufacturing productivity growth. Hence, we try to quantify the importance of reallocation.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3173 (URN)10.1007/BF02665983 (DOI)
Available from: 2004-09-02 Created: 2004-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Has import disciplined Swedish manufacuring firms in the 1990s?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Has import disciplined Swedish manufacuring firms in the 1990s?
2004 (English)In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 109-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses how increased integration and the ongoing enlargement of the EU's internal market affected the performance of Swedish manufacturing firms. The pro-competitive effect of international trade, in term of intensified import competition on domestic firms' market power, has been investigated extensively at the industry-level. In contrast to previous studies, this analysis is based on detailed firm-level information and import data divided into both an EU member group and a group of recently approved EU member candidates. It focuses on how imports from these groups, together with imports from other non-European trading partners, impact on firm-level profitability, while taking firm-specific efficiency effects into account. The findings are that imports from the new EU-candidates, Japan and Asian newly industrialized countries seem to have a disciplinary effect on firm-level profits, whereas imports from EU-member countries only appear to have an impact on firms with large market shares and in highly concentrated industries.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3174 (URN)10.1023/B:JICT.0000037357.99142.40 (DOI)
Available from: 2004-09-02 Created: 2004-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Import competition, product differentiation and mark-ups: microeconomic evidence from Swedish manufacturing in the 1990s
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Import competition, product differentiation and mark-ups: microeconomic evidence from Swedish manufacturing in the 1990s
2004 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper examines how import competition from different origins and the presence of product differentiation affect market power of Swedish manufacturing firms during the 1990s. Applying Roeger’s method (1995), I perform the empirical analysis based on detailed firm-level data and estimate an average mark-up level of Swedish manufacturing firms. The general finding is that imports from both European countries and other highincome countries outside Europe impose disciplinary effects on price-cost margin of Swedish manufacturing firms. The strongest effect is from the recent EU member countries. However, the competitive pressure associated with import is relaxed in the presence of product differentiation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stiftelsen Fackföreningsrörelsens institut för ekonomisk forskning, 2004. p. 33
Series
FIEF working paper series, ISSN 1404-9201 ; 195
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3175 (URN)
Available from: 2004-09-02 Created: 2004-09-02 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
4. International trade and inter-industry wage structure in Swedish manufacuring: evidence from matched employer-employee data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International trade and inter-industry wage structure in Swedish manufacuring: evidence from matched employer-employee data
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study examines the inter-industry wage structure in Swedish manufacturing by using matched employer–employee data for the period 1996 to 2000. First, we used detailed individual and job characteristics to estimate industry-specific and time-varying wage premiums. Second, we investigated the impact of international trade on wage premiums, after controlling for effects of domestic competition and technical progress. Our results indicate that industries that face intensive import competition from low-income countries have lower wage premiums. Surprisingly, the wage premiums are not related to export intensities. Furthermore, technical progress, measured by investment in R&D activity, appears to enhance inter-industry wage premiums.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3176 (URN)
Available from: 2004-09-02 Created: 2004-09-02 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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