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Electronic tongue for water quality assessment
Örebro University, Department of Technology.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the work on the development of a new electronic tongue for water quality assessment. The aim of this work is to build a complete system including a sensor and associated data analysis methods which is able to detect quality changes in drinking water and warn the user if the water is not suitable for drinking. Therefore, the main design issues were to build a portable, robust electronic tongue which provides a fast estimate of the water quality rather than identify the type of the contamination. In this sense, the system has a simple interface resembling traffic light signals. The system responds with green light for good water quality, red for bad quality and yellow if the result is uncertain.

The electronic tongue sensor is based on voltammetry, which gives a relatively simple and robust system. It is suitable for the considered applications, since it is able to measure small changes in the chemical and micro-organic content in water. These properties are very important for our goal to develop an electronic tongue for water quality assessment.

During the development process, the sensor system was modified in order to improve the system’s mobility and robustness. Moreover, the long-term stability and the extent of the sensor drift were evaluated for continuous use. The response time for the sensor is relatively short, but it generates large amounts of data. Therefore, there is a need for pre-processing and feature extraction methods to deal with the complexity of data. This is done with the help of multivariate analysis method. The quality assessment is done with different classification algorithms. We implemented fuzzy clustering and self-organizing maps.

In this thesis, two real applications are also considered, where the measurement is taking place in streaming water. In the first case, the electronic tongue could be placed directly at a water tap where random measurements occur. In the second application continuous measurements are performed and information about the sensor drift is used in the data analysis. The evaluation confirmed that the improved sensor system fulfills the requirements for on-line measurements of water quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek , 2007. , p. 81
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 25
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Industrial Measurement Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-870ISBN: 91-7668-524-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-870DiVA, id: diva2:137387
Public defence
2007-02-16, Hörsal T, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-25 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Virtual water quality tests with an electionic tongue
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual water quality tests with an electionic tongue
2001 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Instrumentation and measurement technology conference, 2001. IMTC 2001: Volume 2, 2001, Vol. 2, p. 1320-1324Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concept of the “electronic tongue” has been used in some experiments to establish the needs of fast and virtual monitoring of aqueous samples, e.g., in the monitoring of drinking water quality. More specifically, the performance of a proposed multi-electrode sensor system, used for voltammetric analysis of aqueous samples, is described. It is, for example, shown how such an “electronic tongue” can be used to monitor the quality of water in a production plant for drinking water. It is pointed out that conventional techniques often determine single concentration of the measured test while in many areas of measurement technology the methodology to extract adequate information from the environment, e.g., the electronic tongue, makes a total water quality estimate based on predetermined constraints extracted from complicated pattern structures. In this approach, experiments are conducted using an electronic tongue to virtually monitor the drinking water quality, measured from the raw water in the river to the tap water of the consumer. It can be shown that a system based on the proposed multi-electrode virtual sensor system is able to detect water quality changes. In these experiments, with the use of signal analysis and statistical multivariate methods we are able to estimate the water quality

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Industrial Measurement Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3216 (URN)10.1109/IMTC.2001.928288 (DOI)0-7803-6646-8 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IEEE Instrumentation and measurement technology conference, IMTC 2001, 21-23 May 2001, Budapest, Hungary
Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
2. Perception based sensor systems in environmental applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perception based sensor systems in environmental applications
2001 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Industrial Measurement Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3217 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
3. New sensor system for drinking water quality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New sensor system for drinking water quality
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the ISA/IEEE Sensors for industry conference, 2004, 2004, p. 30-34Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A sensor system suitable for measuring qualitative changes In the chemical and the bacterial content in drinking water is presented. The sensor, an electronic tongue, is based on a voltammetric technique and is therefore robust, simple and sensitive to small changes of water quality in the measured sample. The sensor system is constructed so the liquid sample will flow through the sensing unit while measuring continuously. The sensor has a solid construction, does not contain any fragile parts and is independent of how it is positioned. This creates new approaches and the sensor can easily be mounted on a underwater vehicle for continuous inspection of drinking water reservoirs and continuously monitor the quality of the water as well as be mounted directly on a drinking water tap.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Industrial Measurement Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3218 (URN)10.1109/SFICON.2004.1287122 (DOI)0-7803-8143-2 (ISBN)
Conference
ISA/IEEE Sensors for industry conference, 2004
Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
4. Human based sensor systems for safety assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human based sensor systems for safety assessment
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International conference on computational intelligence for homeland security and personal safety, 2005. CIHSPS 2005, 2005, p. 137-142Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the assumption that sensor system for personal use has optimal performance if coherent with the human perception system. Therefore, we provide arguments for this idea by demonstrating two examples. The first example is a personal taste sensor for use in finding abnormal ingredients in food. The second application is a mobile sniffing system, coherent with the behavior of a biological system when detecting unwanted material in hidden structures, e.g. explosives in a traveling bag

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Industrial Measurement Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3219 (URN)10.1109/CIHSPS.2005.1500628 (DOI)0-7803-9176-4 (ISBN)
Conference
2005 IEEE International conference on computational intelligence for homeland security and personal safety, Orlando FL, March 31 - April 1 2005. CIHSPS 2005
Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
5. A fuzzy technique for food- and water quality assessment with an electronic tongue
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A fuzzy technique for food- and water quality assessment with an electronic tongue
2006 (English)In: Fuzzy sets and systems (Print), ISSN 0165-0114, E-ISSN 1872-6801, Vol. 157, no 9, p. 1155-1168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The problem of food- and water quality assessment is important for many practical applications, such as food industry and environmental monitoring. In this article we present a method for fast online quality assessment based on electronic tongue measurements. The idea is implemented in two steps. First we apply a fuzzy clustering technique to obtain prototypes corresponding to good and bad quality from a set of training data. During the second, online step we evaluate the membership of the current measurement to each cluster and make a decision about its quality. The result is presented to the user in a simple and understandable way, similar to the concept of traffic light signals. Namely, good quality is indicated with by a green light, bad quality with a red one, and a yellow light is a warning signal. The approach is demonstrated in two case studies: quality assessment of drinking water and baby food.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Control Engineering
Research subject
Automatic Control
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3220 (URN)10.1016/j.fss.2005.12.014 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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