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On the chemical state and mobility of lead and other trace elements at the biogeosphere/technosphere interface
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2674-4994
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Most inorganic contamination has occurred at the interface between the technosphere and the biogeosphere, even though atmospheric emissions have affected the entire globe. Several human activities now pose a substantial threat towards human health and the ecosystems. It was thus decided to study lead as an element with significant anthropogenic emissions in a variety of sources and environments. Lead and other trace elements were studied in groundwaters used for drinking water, in roadside environments, at a shooting range and in a contaminated lake in order to obtain information about mobility and redistribution in different hydrobiogeochemical environments.

It was found that 60% of the investigated drilled wells in crystalline bedrock failed to meet international health safety limits. This was mainly due to the presence of enhanced concentrations of fluoride and uranium.

Along roads the concentrations and massfluxes increased significantly for lead, as well as for otheer elements during the winter. This is most likely due to increased pavement wear as a consequence of studded tires and use of deicing salts. The mobility of trace elements also increased in the roadside soils, threatening the shallow groundwater.

At the shooting range it was found that the downward migration of lead was greater than expected and equilibrium with cerussite was suggested from solid speciation and geochemical calculations. Antimony was associated with lead and showed, despite differences in chemical properties, a similar distribution pattern. This was due to the fact that the major part of the transport at the shooting range was physical.

In the contaminated lake, several findings regarding the solid speciation of lead was confirmed and other information about redistribution into the hypolimnion from the sediment was gained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek , 2002. , p. 42
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 1
Keyword [en]
lead, trace elements, traffic, shooting range, peat, sediments, speciation, biokemi
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-9ISBN: 91-7668-313-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-9DiVA, id: diva2:137418
Public defence
2002-10-18, Hörsal P, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15
Opponent
Available from: 2002-10-18 Created: 2002-10-18 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Chemical character of drinking water from Swedish crystaline bedrock
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical character of drinking water from Swedish crystaline bedrock
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15924 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. Speciation of heavy metals in road runoff and roadside total deposition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speciation of heavy metals in road runoff and roadside total deposition
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2003 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 147, no 1-4, p. 343-366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, W and Zn were measured in road runoff and total deposition at two Swedish field sites during one year. It was found that the concentrations of most elements increased significantly during the winter, up to one order of magnitude. For cobalt and tungsten, it was found that around 90% of the total mass transport occurred during the winter, whereas for Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Na, the corresponding figures were 70–90, 40–80, 60–90, 50–70 and >99% depending on site specific conditions. The deicing salts (rock salts) did not significantly contribute to the increase in trace element concentrations. Instead, the increased concentrations were due to more intense wearing of the pavement during the winter because of the use of studded tires in combination with the chemical effects caused by the use of deicing salts. New potential elemental markers for roads and traffic are suggested.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5196 (URN)10.1023/A:1024545916834 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-01-30 Created: 2009-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Mobilisation of heavy metals by deicing salts in a roadside environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobilisation of heavy metals by deicing salts in a roadside environment
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2004 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 720-732Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The seasonal variations of some selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) and principal anions in soil solutions were monitored as a function of distance from the road at two field sites in Sweden. During the winter, the conductivity, concentrations of dissolved sodium and chloride increased dramatically due to the application of deicing agents (i.e. NaCl). Due to ion exchange, the pH decreased one unit in the soil solutions, whereas the concentrations of total organic carbon decreased due to coagulation and/or sorption to stationary solids. The heavy metal concentrations increased during the winter, but through different mechanisms. Cadmium concentrations in the aqueous phase increased as a response to ion exchange, possibly also enhanced by the formation of chloride complexes. Similarly, the concentrations of zinc increased, due to ion exchange, with calcium and protons. The mechanisms of mobilisation for copper and lead were not that clear probably due to association with coagulated or sorbed organic matter in combination with colloid dispersion

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5200 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2003.11.006 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-01-30 Created: 2009-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Metal leachability and anthropogenic signal in roadside soils estimated from sequential extraction and stable lead isotopes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal leachability and anthropogenic signal in roadside soils estimated from sequential extraction and stable lead isotopes
2004 (English)In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 90, no 1-3, p. 135-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several roadside soil samples were collected at two field sites in Sweden. They were analysed for total elemental content (using both ICP-MS and XRF) and stable lead isotopes. Extraction with deicing salt solution and sequential extraction were performed in order to elucidate the potential mobility due to the use of deicing agents. The total concentrations of elements, especially lead, have decreased and lead is presently almost at background concentrations (15–51 ppm for surface samples). However, the isotopic signature indicates that old gasoline lead still is left at the site constructed prior to 1975. The field site constructed in 1992 showed, however, no 206Pb/207Pb ratio below 1.14. Only minor amounts were leached using deicing salt solutions; for lead only 0.29%, on average, was extracted indicating that the mobile fraction already was released. Sequential extraction indicated that lead mainly was associated with reducible (34.4%) and oxidisable (35.4%) fractions. Exchangable and acid soluble fractions contained 20.3% while 10.0% was found in the residual fraction. The salt extraction released, however, very low concentrations indicating that most in fraction 1 is acid soluble (e.g. carbonates). Tungsten was also found at high concentrations indicating a possible impact from studded tires. For tungsten the following composition was obtained: residual (48.0%) > oxidisable (47.6%) > reducible (3.3%) > exchangeable/acid soluble (1.1%). From the isotopic studies it was also suggested that the order for incorporating anthropogenic lead into soils is exchangeable/carbonates > (hydr)oxides > organic matter > residual. The multivariate technique principal component analysis (PCA) seems promising for evaluating large sequential extraction datasets.

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5197 (URN)10.1023/B:EMAS.0000003572.40515.31 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-01-30 Created: 2009-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Factors affecting the dissolution of lead pellets in natural waters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors affecting the dissolution of lead pellets in natural waters
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15925 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
6. Multielement contamination at a skeet and trap shooting range: I: mobility assessment through sequential extraction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multielement contamination at a skeet and trap shooting range: I: mobility assessment through sequential extraction
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15926 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
7. Multielement contamination at a skeet and trap shooting range: II: seasonal and spatial variations in surface and groundwaters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multielement contamination at a skeet and trap shooting range: II: seasonal and spatial variations in surface and groundwaters
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15928 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
8. Migration and mobility of lead and antimony from a heavily polluted lake sediment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migration and mobility of lead and antimony from a heavily polluted lake sediment
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15929 (URN)
Available from: 2011-06-15 Created: 2011-06-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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