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Replacement of lead baths with environment friendly alternative heat treatment processes in steel wire production
Örebro University, Department of Technology.
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek , 2005. , p. 32
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 17
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3376OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3376DiVA, id: diva2:137673
Presentation
(English)
Available from: 2007-07-17 Created: 2007-07-17 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Replacement of lead baths for the tempering of spring wire
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Replacement of lead baths for the tempering of spring wire
2003 (English)In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 241-246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Molten lead is used for tempering of valve-spring wire. Lead has drawbacks due to slow temperature changes. In 1991 the Swedish Parliament passed a Government Bill, in which proposals were made to phase out the use of lead in the long term, primarily through voluntary measures. Tempering of SIS 2090 (SAE 9254, DIN 55SiCr7) wire with different dimensions using induction heating was tested in a pilot process line. An induction coil for six wires and two coils with different lengths designed for single wires were tested. The results showed that an induction coil for six wires gave excessive temperature and property variations between the wires. The shorter of the single wire coils gave fluctuations in temperature and properties using a 3.00-mm wire. No such fluctuations were observed with the longer coil. One of the experiments showed that the process might need time to reach stable conditions. The results so far indicate that it is possible to produce valve-spring wire with induction tempering. The process needs more control and monitoring compared to tempering in molten lead. © Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003.

Keyword
Automotive engineering, Lead, Wire, Monitoring
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4615 (URN)10.1034/j.1600-0692.2003.00648.x (DOI)
Available from: 2007-07-12 Created: 2007-07-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Alternatives to lead bath for patenting of high carbon steel wire
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternatives to lead bath for patenting of high carbon steel wire
2004 (English)In: Wire Journal International, ISSN 0277-4275, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 82-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The alternatives to lead bath for patenting of high carbon steel wire are discussed. It is found that it is possible to achieve properties of high-speed gas patented music wire without using a soaking furnace. Laboratory experiments with patenting in a fluidized bed, showed that the process could give the required mechanical properties for the valve spring wire. It is also found that small alterations in process parameters in the industrial trials has a large impact on the mechanical properties and microstructures.

Keyword
Carbon steel, Furnaces, Austenite, Mufflers, Wire drawing, Molten materials, Valves (mechanical), Quenching, Process control, High temperature effects
Research subject
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4582 (URN)
Available from: 2007-07-12 Created: 2007-07-12 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
3. Material properties of induction tempered high tensile valve spring wire
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material properties of induction tempered high tensile valve spring wire
2006 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 77, no 11, p. 836-843Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most of today's hardened valve spring wires are tempered in a lead bath. The lead bath provides a stable and accurate degree of tempering of the wire, but it has environmental disadvantages and limitations in flexibility. This paper describes how induction heating can replace lead bath and how this may affect the material properties. The study includes FEM-simulations, calculation of the tempering parameter and experiments with induction tempering of three different SiCr valve spring steels carried out under pilot production. The mechanical properties of the test samples were measured. Fatigue testing of one of the steels was performed on finished springs. The results were evaluated by comparing induction-tempered wire with the conventional lead tempered reference wire. The induction tempered wire fulfilled the product requirements and corresponded in performance with the lead tempered wire.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Düsseldorf: Verlag Stahleisen, 2006
Keyword
Wire, Valves (mechanical), Tempering, Lead, Thermoanalysis, Steel, Finite element method, Computer simulation, Induction tempering, Spring steel, Super clean steel, High strength steel, Silicon chromium steel
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
maskinteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4387 (URN)
Available from: 2007-07-12 Created: 2007-07-12 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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