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Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden: before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6328-5494
2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation.

Methods A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the preban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out.

Results The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk (<0.5 µg/m3), while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15–0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest preban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers.

Conclusions The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsingfors: Institutet för arbetshygien , 2008. Vol. 34, no 4, p. 267-277
Keywords [en]
Attitude to Health, Cotinine/urine, Female, Gambling, Humans, Male, Occupational Exposure/adverse effects/analysis/*prevention & control, Public Policy, Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology/etiology, Restaurants, Smoking/*legislation & jurisprudence, Spirometry, Sweden/epidemiology, Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects/analysis/*prevention & control
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Social Medicine; Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3755PubMedID: 18815714OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3755DiVA, id: diva2:138053
Available from: 2009-01-05 Created: 2009-01-05 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Även andra individer än rökaren kan påverkas av tobaksrökning. Syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka några sådana effekter. Studierna omfattar såväl passiv rökning som exponering under graviditet. Mer specifikt handlar studierna om:

· Exponering för passiv rökning under barndomen och samband med luftvägssymtom och allergi senare i livet.

· Passiv rökning i vuxen ålder och samband med luftvägssymtom.

· Exponering hos serveringspersonal och effekter av lagstiftning mot tobaksrökning.

· Rökning under graviditet och kontroll och koordination av handrörelser hos barn.

Passiv rökning i barndomen hade en koppling till ökad risk för astma och allergi. Passiv rökning hos vuxna var kopplat till förekomst av andnings- och luftvägssymtom på ett dosberoende vis. Besvär i andningsvägar och slemhinnor minskade avsevärt hos icke rökande serveringspersonal efter rökförbudet på restauranger som infördes den 1 juni 2005.

Mammans rökning under graviditet var kopplad till nedsatt handkontroll och handkoordination hos avkomman. Sambandet var tydligast för vänsterhanden och pojkarnas handfunktion påverkades betydligt mer än flickornas. Fynden stödjer att rökning under graviditet kan påverka nervsystemets utveckling i negativ riktning.

Ett flertal oönskade effekter kan således drabba dem som är nära rökare under någon period i livet och resultaten understryker vikten av att förebygga sådan exponering.

Abstract [en]

Secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products can influence the human body in a variety of ways. The aim of this thesis was to investigate a variety of health effects of secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products. The research encompassed both airborne and in utero exposures. Specific investigations included:

· Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and associations with respiratory symptoms and allergic sensitization.

· Adult exposure to ETS and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms

· Workplace exposure to ETS and associations with respiratory symptoms

· The influence of smoke-free workplace legislation on respiratory symptoms

· In utero exposure and associations with physical control and coordination at age 11 years

Environmental tobacco smoke during childhood was shown to be associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergic sensitization. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in adult non-smokers was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. The frequency of respiratory and sensory symptoms in hospitality workers declined substantially in non-smokers following the introduction of smoke-free legislation. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with poorer physical control and coordination among offspring, particularly in the left – usually non-dominant- hand and most pronounced in boys, consistent with an adverse influence on neurological development.

These findings help to characterize several adverse outcomes associated with secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products and emphasise the importance of preventing such exposures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2008. p. 72
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 23
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2519 (URN)978-91-7668-635-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-11-21, Wilandersalen, M-huset, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-10-20 Created: 2008-10-20 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, MatzMontgomery, Scott M.

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