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Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6330-789X
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6217-8857
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4959-2807
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2008 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619
National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5294DOI: 10.1007/s11356-008-0040-1PubMedID: 18763004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-5294DiVA, id: diva2:158642
Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Assessment of human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs): exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs): exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of human exposure have not been fully characterized. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the contributions from food, water, air and dust as sources for human PFC exposure in the general population.

Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of Up to 27 PFCs were determined at trace levels in blood (ng/mL), water (ng/L), foods (ng/g), dust (ng/g) and air (pg/m3) in a selected Catalan population and PFC intake was estimated from the measured PFC concentrations of the different sources of exposure.

The major compounds detected in human blood of the studied population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS; 3.6 ng/mL) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 1.8 ng/mL). In general, PFOS was also the major compound detected in most sources of exposure.

Food was found to be the dominant pathway for human PFC exposure accounting for more than 70 % of the total intake of both PFOS and PFOA. In the most populated area (the Barcelona Province) where the highest levels were measured, tap water can contribute to the total exposure substantially with more than 50 % for adults. Indoor sources were negligible in the selected area for most PFCs when compared to food and water intake, except for toddlers under a worst case scenario where contribution from dust and food intake were equal (19 %).

Pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling resulted in exposure of 103 ng PFOS/day and 33 ng PFOA/day of adults from the internal PFC blood concentrations. This agrees well with the intake estimated from external exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air of 80 ng PFOS/day and 32 ng PFOA/day and evidently all major exposure sources for the general population were included (in this study).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2011. p. 85
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 10
Keyword
human exposure, per- and polyfluorinated compunds (PFCs), dietary intake, drinking water, indoor environment
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16624 (URN)978-91-7668-811-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-23, Örebro universitet, Hörsal M, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Ericson Jogsten, Ingridvan Bavel, BertLindström, Gunilla

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