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Anabolic-androgenic steroid users in treatment: social background, drug use patterns, and criminality
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2009. , 98 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 28
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Medicine; Social Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6249ISBN: 978-91-7668-662-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-6249DiVA: diva2:211450
Public defence
2009-05-28, Wilandersalen, Universitetssjukhuset Örebro, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-28 Created: 2009-04-15 Last updated: 2011-05-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Troubled social background of male anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers in treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Troubled social background of male anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers in treatment
2007 (English)In: Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 2, 20- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the social background and current social situation of male abusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS).

Methods

We compared thirty-four AAS-abusing patients from an Addiction Centre (AC) with two groups, 18 users and 259 non-users of AAS from a public gym in Orebro, Sweden. The study is based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires.

Results

Histories of a troubled childhood as well as current social disadvantage were both more frequent among the AAS users. Users also reported poor relationships with their parents and almost half of them had experienced physical or mental abuse. The AC group's experiences from school were mostly negative, and included concentration problems, boredom and learning difficulties. Their current circumstance included abuse of other drugs, battering of spouses and other criminality such as assault, illegal possession of weapons and theft.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this study shows that abusers of AAS often have a troubled social background. This underlines the importance of making a thorough social assessment as a part of the treatment programme. The results of the study may help in directing appropriate questions relevant to the abuse of AAS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2007
National Category
Substance Abuse Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3611 (URN)10.1186/1747-597X-2-20 (DOI)17615062 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-12-17 Created: 2008-12-17 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
2. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports
2008 (English)In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 3, 24- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. METHODS: We interviewed six patients (four men and two women) with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. RESULTS: There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2008
National Category
Substance Abuse Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3407 (URN)10.1186/1747-597X-3-24 (DOI)19040748 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-12-17 Created: 2008-12-17 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
3. Multisubstance use as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multisubstance use as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids
2009 (English)In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 15, no 2, 99-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to explore and describe total drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users and the reasons given for the use of these drugs. The study was based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires involving 32 patients who were attending an addiction centre in Orebro, Sweden, for AAS use. The results indicated that a history of polysubstance use among the patients was frequent. Over half were using drugs of abuse and also taking various other pharmaceuticals. Almost half of the patients took human growth hormones, and almost half of the interviewed persons were drinking alcohol to a hazardous or harmful extent. The most common reason given for taking AAS and other hormones was to increase muscle mass and strength, but some participants also used insulin as a means of losing fat. Cannabis was used to improve sleep, heroin to decrease pain and amphetamine to increase endurance and burn fat. Our data suggest that most of the current AAS users who have been admitted to a treatment programme are multiple drug users with polysubstance dependence. The study stresses the importance of carefully examining total drug use as part of the assessment regimen for this group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: Karger, 2009
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6228 (URN)10.1159/000199045 (DOI)000264869000006 ()19182484 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-58949088857 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-04-15 Created: 2009-04-14 Last updated: 2017-03-15Bibliographically approved
4. Is there an association between the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and criminality?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there an association between the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and criminality?
2010 (English)In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 16, no 4, 213-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the proposed association between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and criminality.

Methods: The study was based on interviews and criminality data involving 32 users of AAS who had sought treatment for AAS-related problems at a psychiatric addiction clinic in Sweden. A score derived from the number of crimes, their level of severity and the relevant time periods was computed to allow comparisons between subgroups sorted according to type and timing of drug use.

Results: The criminal activity level increased for 69% of the individuals after having started to use drugs. This was particularly obvious in the group who had started its involvement with drugs by using AAS. Crimes of violence and weapon offences showed a great increase in incidence after drug use had been initiated. The study also showed a significant decrease in criminality after treatment, particularly among individuals who had started their drug use with AAS.

Conclusions: The results suggest that there is an association between the use of AAS and criminality, especially with regard to crimes of violence and weapon offences, and that this criminality may be enhanced when AAS are combined with other drugs of abuse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger, 2010
Keyword
Hormones, Anabolic-androgenic steroids, Steroids, Drugs of abuse, Crime, Violence, Sweden
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry Substance Abuse
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6235 (URN)10.1159/000320286 (DOI)000281516700006 ()20798542 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-04-14 Created: 2009-04-14 Last updated: 2017-02-15Bibliographically approved

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