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The origin of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate at a neonatal ward in Sweden: possible horizontal transfer of a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5939-2932
2008 (English)In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 14, no 11, 1048-1056 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain originated when a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) with the gene mecA was integrated into the chromosome of a susceptible S. aureus cell. The SCCmec elements are common among the coagulase-negative staphylococci, e.g. Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and these are considered to be potential SCCmec donors when new clones of MRSA arise. An outbreak of MRSA occurred at a neonatal intensive-care unit, and the isolates were all of sequence type (ST) 45, as characterized by multilocus sequence typing, but were not typeable with respect to SCCmec types I, II, III or IV. During the same time period, methicillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (MRSH) isolates identified in blood cultures at the same ward were found to be genotypically homogenous by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and did not carry a type I, II, III or IV SCCmec either. Thus, the hypothesis was raised that an SCCmec of MRSH had been transferred to a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strain and thereby created a new clone of MRSA that caused the outbreak. This study showed that MRSA from the outbreak carried a ccrC and a class C mec complex that was also found among MRSH isolates. Partial sequencing of the mec complexes showed more than 99% homology, indicative of a common type V SCCmec. This finding may provide evidence for a recent horizontal transfer of an SCCmec from MRSH to an identified potential recipient, an ST45 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strain, thereby creating a new clone of MRSA that caused the outbreak.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Blackwell , 2008. Vol. 14, no 11, 1048-1056 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Immunology; Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6904DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02090.xPubMedID: 19040477OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-6904DiVA: diva2:218997
Available from: 2009-05-25 Created: 2009-05-25 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus: epidemiological aspects of MRSA and the dissemination in the community and in hospitals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus: epidemiological aspects of MRSA and the dissemination in the community and in hospitals
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Methicillin-resistenta Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) som bär på genen mecA, har förekommit och spridit sig över hela världen, främst i sjukhusmiljö, och orsakat utbrott av vårdrelaterade (så kallade nosokomiala) infektioner. Dessa infektioner kan inte behandlas med stafylokock-penicilliner och MRSA-bakterierna är ofta resistenta även mot flera andra grupper av antibiotika vilket medför att infektionerna ofta är påtagligt svårbehandlade. Under senare år har emellertid allt fler fall beskrivits av samhällsförvärvad MRSA infektion, det vill säga uppträdande av MRSA hos personer som tidigare ej har haft kontakt med sjukhusvård eller behandlats med antibiotika. Det har länge varit oklart om de samhällsförvärvade MRSA [community-acquired (CA-MRSA)] representerar spridning av bakterier från sjukhusmiljön ut till samhället eller om dessa MRSA är spontant uppträdande. Många av dessa stammar har dessutom visat sig bära på sjukdomsrelaterade gener som vanligen inte återfinns hos S. aureus, t.ex. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) som associeras med hudinfektioner och allvarlig lunginflammation med hög dödlighet hos unga och annars friska individer.

Denna avhandling beskriver den molekylära epidemiologin hos MRSA med fokus på samhällsförvärvade MRSA som utgjorde mer än hälften av samtliga fall av MRSA i Örebro län och som dessutom ofta producerade PVL toxinet, vars funktion vidare analyserades i detalj. Undersökning av ursprung och släktskap hos samtliga MRSA som isolerats i Örebro län, samt karaktärisering av det genetiskt element som kallas staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) vilket innehåller genen mecA och ibland även andra resistensgener, visade att CA-MRSA inte är relaterade till de nosokomiala MRSA, och att dessa har uppstått oberoende av varandra. Flertalet MRSA visade sig dessutom bära på SCCmec, och resistensmekanismer, som tidigare inte beskrivits. Troligen har dessa MRSA uppstått genom ett genetiskt utbyte av SCCmec mellan methicillin-resistenta koagulas-negativa stafylokocker (MR-KNS), som utgör huvudparten av normalfloran på huden, och methicillin-känsliga S. aureus som därvid erhåller genen mecA och resistensmekanismer mot samtliga stafylokockantibiotika. I den här avhandlingen framläggs bevis för att ett sådant genetiskt utbyte har skett på Barnkliniken på Universitetssjukhuset i Örebro i slutet på 1990-talet, vilket resulterade i uppkomsten av en ny klon av MRSA som därefter orsakade ett allvarligt utbrott. Kartläggning av DNA-sekvensen hos flertalet unika SCCmec från svenska MRSA gav dessutom en bättre förståelse för hur resistens uppkommer och sprider sig, samt mekanismerna bakom detta. Dessa nya kunskaper kan bidra till en förbättrad diagnostik av MRSA. Detta är framför allt av stor betydelse eftersom nya effektiva kloner av MRSA verkar kunna uppstå ute i samhället med potential att orsaka svårbehandlade infektioner men även att sprida sig bland den friska befolkningen.

Abstract [en]

Material and methods - During a period of 14 years, around 2000 patients with head injuries were admitted to the emergency ward at Lindesberg County Hospital and Örebro Medical Centre Hospital. Six hundred subjects suffered from skull fracture and/or brain contusion and diagnosis was established using a computed tomography scan (CT). The degree of initial brain injury was estimated using the Swedish Reaction Level Scale (RLS). Sixty-six subjects were investigated with pure tone audiometry in close proximity to the trauma, and this gave an opportunity to study the issue of progress. The investigation took place two to 14 years after trauma, and the results were compared to matched control groups. A battery of different audiological methods was used to investigate peripheral and central auditory function, and a specially designed acoustic environmental room was also utilized. Cognition was investigated using a computer-based test-battery, text information process system (TIPS). Self-assessed hearing, cognition and quality of life were explored using different questionnaires.

Results - A high percentage of peripheral and central auditory impairments and also cognitive shortcomings were demonstrated. Progress of SNHL was a common finding, and fracture, high age at trauma and large initial hearing loss predicted progress. Antibody-mediated autoimmunity as a mechanism behind posttraumatic progress of SNHL or clear evidence for sympathetic cochleolabyrinthitis could not be demonstrated. Binaural auditory deficits could be demonstrated when tested in a realistic acoustic environment. Tinnitus, vertigo and memory shortcomings proved to be common sequelae, even in a long-term perspectiveCognitive shortcomings were found in several of these well-rehabilitated subjects.On a group level, there was a good correlation between self-assessments and audiometric results, even if some individuals had a tendency to over- or underestimate their abilities.

Conclusion - Auditory and cognitive long-term sequelae of CHI are a common finding even in well-rehabilitated and socially well-functioning subjects, as are vertigo and tinnitus. Vertigo and tinnitus are also common sequelae after CHI, therefore a basic audiovestibular investigation after CHI is recommended, at least in selected cases.Early awareness of the risk for hearing and cognitive sequelae after CHI could lead to measurements taken to prevent tension-related symptoms.Early detection of HI offers an opportunity to try immunosuppressive treatment in cases with a large initial SNHL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2008. 126 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 20
Keyword
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), horizontal transfer, Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2443 (URN)978-91-7668-611-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-09-26, Wilandersalen, Universitetssjukhuset Örebro, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-09-02 Created: 2008-09-02 Last updated: 2011-05-16Bibliographically approved

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