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Re-cycling of Remediated Soil in Sweden: An Environmental Advantage?
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7338-2079
Sakab AB.
2008 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 12, 1349-1361 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The disposal of soil material after ex-situ treatment of contaminated soil is an issue of growing concern. The handling and use of this material are surrounded by numerous regulatory, economic, technical and societal aspects that complicate or hinder recycling. As a consequence, the lack of means of recovery can in the long term bias the whole remedial process. In addition, it can affect the competition between various treatment options such as ex-situ, and in-situ techniques and landfilling. At the same time the materials must not have any negative environmental impacts, and their usage must be compatible with existing risk assessment and management frameworks regarding contaminated land. Other concerns such as a possible distinction against “lightly” contaminated materials, waste status and public acceptance add to the complexity. This paper focuses on Swedish conditions, but does also provide an outlook concerning EU regulation. A summary of leaching and batch tests employed for re-use of soil and waste is presented as well as an overview of the eco-toxicological aspects of treated materials. The main conclusion is that re-cycling of treated soil is desirable from numerous aspects, but has to go along an adequate risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2008. Vol. 52, no 12, 1349-1361 p.
Keyword [en]
Environmental impact; Re-cycling; Remediation; Soil; Waste
National Category
Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7989DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2008.07.016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-7989DiVA: diva2:236455
Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contaminated soils are a large issue worldwide and much effort has been made to find efficient remediation methods. At many contaminated sites, mixtures of dif­ferent contaminants with different properties are present, which may lead to addi­tional problems, and thus additional costs, during the remediation process. This thesis presents the results from soil remedia­tion of two mixed contaminated soils, containing explosives and heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and arsenic, respectively. The re­sults demonstrate that bioremediation may be an efficient method for moderate explosives concentration, but that too high contaminant concentrations may prevent the biodegradation, measured by both chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. If the contaminant concentration is very high, soil washing with alkaline pH (~12, NaOH) may be a good alterna­tive, which was observed to remove both explosives and heavy metals.

For a PAH and arsenic contaminated soil, little degradation of organics was ob­served during the bioremediation. However, the arsenic present was re-distributed in the soil, which could poten­tially lead to increased availability and thus in­creased risk for contaminant spreading. Soil washing at alkaline pH (~12-13; Ca(OH)2) with a combination of a biodegradable non-ionic sur­factant and a biodegradable chelating agent, executed at high temperature (50°C), reached treatment goals for both arsenic and PAH after 10 min treatment. Measurement of ecotoxicity using Microtox® demonstrated that remaining surfactant in the soil may lead to increased toxicity despite lower con­taminant concentrations.

Soil is a basically non-renewable resource and thus re-cycling of remediated soil ought to be commonly occurring. Yet, the re-cycling of remediated masses has so far been limited in Sweden, mainly because of the risk of spreading of pollu­tant remains. However, a recent proposition from the Swedish EPA opens for re-cycl­ing, even though the thresholds are very con­servative. Risk assessment of the re­mediated soil includes the utilization of leach­ing tests to estimate the risk of spreading of remaining pollutants. A comparison of the leaching from four reme­diated soils using three different leaching solutions reveals that leaching of both heavy metals and PAH occurs. In addition, differ­ences between different legisla­tions were observed, which could imply that the same soil could be re-cycled in one country (the Netherlands) but not another (Sweden).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2009. 54 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 13
Keyword
Bioremediation, Microtox®, mixed contaminants, re-cycling, soil remediation, soil washing.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7993 (URN)978-91-7668-683-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-23, HSP2, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-29 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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van Hees, Patrick A. W.Elgh-Dalgren, KristinEngwall, Magnus

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