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Simultaneous re­mediation of explosives and lead from contaminated soil by pH-adjust­ment
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2104-4593
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Soil washing with pH-adjusted water was evaluated in two soils containing dif­ferent concentrations of heavy metals and explosives. Overall, the most efficient treatment was with water adjusted to pH 12 by NaOH. For explosives, pH 12 removed significantly higher amounts (P<0.05) of RDX and TNT compared to pH 4 (adjusted with HNO3) and distilled water in a moderately contaminated soil (230 mg HMX/kg, 1340 mg RDX/kg, 450 mg TNT/kg). In a more highly contaminated soil (6080 mg HMX/kg, 28740 mg RDX/kg, 3120 mg TNT/kg), the pH 12-treatment was the most efficient for removal of TNT and 2,4-DNT. Explosives removal increased with treatment time, probably due to the kineti­cally slow processes underlying the explosives degradation. Mobilization of heavy metals was strongly dependent on pH, with pH 12 mobilizing more than pH 3. In addition, the change in distribution coefficient (Kd) was more pro­nounced for local contaminants Pb and Cd in comparison with Cu and Zn, which were present in background concentrations.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7990OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-7990DiVA: diva2:236472
Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2016-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contaminated soils are a large issue worldwide and much effort has been made to find efficient remediation methods. At many contaminated sites, mixtures of dif­ferent contaminants with different properties are present, which may lead to addi­tional problems, and thus additional costs, during the remediation process. This thesis presents the results from soil remedia­tion of two mixed contaminated soils, containing explosives and heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and arsenic, respectively. The re­sults demonstrate that bioremediation may be an efficient method for moderate explosives concentration, but that too high contaminant concentrations may prevent the biodegradation, measured by both chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. If the contaminant concentration is very high, soil washing with alkaline pH (~12, NaOH) may be a good alterna­tive, which was observed to remove both explosives and heavy metals.

For a PAH and arsenic contaminated soil, little degradation of organics was ob­served during the bioremediation. However, the arsenic present was re-distributed in the soil, which could poten­tially lead to increased availability and thus in­creased risk for contaminant spreading. Soil washing at alkaline pH (~12-13; Ca(OH)2) with a combination of a biodegradable non-ionic sur­factant and a biodegradable chelating agent, executed at high temperature (50°C), reached treatment goals for both arsenic and PAH after 10 min treatment. Measurement of ecotoxicity using Microtox® demonstrated that remaining surfactant in the soil may lead to increased toxicity despite lower con­taminant concentrations.

Soil is a basically non-renewable resource and thus re-cycling of remediated soil ought to be commonly occurring. Yet, the re-cycling of remediated masses has so far been limited in Sweden, mainly because of the risk of spreading of pollu­tant remains. However, a recent proposition from the Swedish EPA opens for re-cycl­ing, even though the thresholds are very con­servative. Risk assessment of the re­mediated soil includes the utilization of leach­ing tests to estimate the risk of spreading of remaining pollutants. A comparison of the leaching from four reme­diated soils using three different leaching solutions reveals that leaching of both heavy metals and PAH occurs. In addition, differ­ences between different legisla­tions were observed, which could imply that the same soil could be re-cycled in one country (the Netherlands) but not another (Sweden).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2009. 54 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 13
Keyword
Bioremediation, Microtox®, mixed contaminants, re-cycling, soil remediation, soil washing.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7993 (URN)978-91-7668-683-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-23, HSP2, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-29 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2011-04-29Bibliographically approved

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