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Re-cycling of remediated soil: evaluation of leaching tests as tools for characterization
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
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2011 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, 215-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, leaching tests with deionized water (D.W.) are frequently utilized in risk assessment, but implementation of these results to evaluate the risk of spreading in the environment is difficult. One problem is that most leaching procedures only consider heavy metals release, whereas organic pollutants are left out. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible pollutant miti­gation in four remediated soils, three with heavy metals and one with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), utilizing three different leaching solutions: D.W., a weak ionic solution (0.001 M CaCl2) and an artificially made soil wa­ter (ASW). In general, batch leaching implied larger contaminant removal than column leaching, possibly due to the more rough treatment of the soil particles, and guidelines would at times be exceeded by batch leaching but not column leaching. Utilization of CaCl2 was found to release much less heavy metal than D.W., whereas the metals mobilized by ASW were removed from solution by the filtration of soil leachates. Low molecular weight PAH was most efficiently mobilized by CaCl2, while D.W. worked better for high molecular weight PAH. Despite very low initial PAH-concentrations, tap- and groundwater criteria were exceeded by all leaching solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2011. Vol. 31, no 2, 215-224 p.
Keyword [en]
Heavy metals, Leaching test, PAH, Re-cycling
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7992DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.12.021ISI: 000286411400003PubMedID: 20117924Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-78649838340OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-7992DiVA: diva2:236474
Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-02-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of materials with mixed contaminants: treatability, technology and final disposal
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Contaminated soils are a large issue worldwide and much effort has been made to find efficient remediation methods. At many contaminated sites, mixtures of dif­ferent contaminants with different properties are present, which may lead to addi­tional problems, and thus additional costs, during the remediation process. This thesis presents the results from soil remedia­tion of two mixed contaminated soils, containing explosives and heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and arsenic, respectively. The re­sults demonstrate that bioremediation may be an efficient method for moderate explosives concentration, but that too high contaminant concentrations may prevent the biodegradation, measured by both chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. If the contaminant concentration is very high, soil washing with alkaline pH (~12, NaOH) may be a good alterna­tive, which was observed to remove both explosives and heavy metals.

For a PAH and arsenic contaminated soil, little degradation of organics was ob­served during the bioremediation. However, the arsenic present was re-distributed in the soil, which could poten­tially lead to increased availability and thus in­creased risk for contaminant spreading. Soil washing at alkaline pH (~12-13; Ca(OH)2) with a combination of a biodegradable non-ionic sur­factant and a biodegradable chelating agent, executed at high temperature (50°C), reached treatment goals for both arsenic and PAH after 10 min treatment. Measurement of ecotoxicity using Microtox® demonstrated that remaining surfactant in the soil may lead to increased toxicity despite lower con­taminant concentrations.

Soil is a basically non-renewable resource and thus re-cycling of remediated soil ought to be commonly occurring. Yet, the re-cycling of remediated masses has so far been limited in Sweden, mainly because of the risk of spreading of pollu­tant remains. However, a recent proposition from the Swedish EPA opens for re-cycl­ing, even though the thresholds are very con­servative. Risk assessment of the re­mediated soil includes the utilization of leach­ing tests to estimate the risk of spreading of remaining pollutants. A comparison of the leaching from four reme­diated soils using three different leaching solutions reveals that leaching of both heavy metals and PAH occurs. In addition, differ­ences between different legisla­tions were observed, which could imply that the same soil could be re-cycled in one country (the Netherlands) but not another (Sweden).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2009. 54 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 13
Keyword
Bioremediation, Microtox®, mixed contaminants, re-cycling, soil remediation, soil washing.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7993 (URN)978-91-7668-683-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-23, HSP2, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-29 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2011-04-29Bibliographically approved

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