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A Conceptual Framework for E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Critical Review of Research Challenges
Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. (ICT4D)
Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. (ICT4D)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3713-346X
2009 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 38, no 8, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a critical review of research on challenges for e-learning with a particular focus on developing countries. A comprehensive literature review including 60 papers on e-learning challenges was undertaken for the purpose of understanding how to implement e-learning in developing countries. Research questions were: what has existing research identified as the major challenges for e-learning, and, what differences, if any, are there between developing countries and developed countries in this respect? The literature study found 278 papers which were condensed to 60 based on exclusion and inclusion criteria designed to find papers of best quality as well as papers that clearly investigated well-defined challenges. The research found 30 specific challenges which were grouped into four categories, viz.: courses, individuals, technology and context. The overall conclusion is that these challenges are equally valid for both developed and developing countries; however in developing countries more papers focus on access to technology and context whereas in developed countries more papers concern individuals. A further finding is that most papers focus on one or two categories of challenges; few papers exhibit a comprehensive view. Because challenges are interrelated, based on the findings we propose a conceptual framework of emerging issues for e-learning in developed and developing countries. The framework is useful to guide both practice and research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong , 2009. Vol. 38, no 8, 1-16 p.
Keyword [en]
e-learning, challenges, literature review, conceptual framework, developing countries
National Category
Information Science
Research subject
Computer Science; informatics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8058OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-8058DiVA: diva2:241236
Available from: 2009-10-01 Created: 2009-10-01 Last updated: 2016-08-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Learning to learn in e-Learning: constructive practices for development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning to learn in e-Learning: constructive practices for development
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis concerns technology use in distance educations and learning practices related to this use. The research was carried out over the period 2005 to 2009 in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka and has been reported in 6 published papers. The research is situated within the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) and within this field e-learning. Education is important for development and for many students in developing countries distance education is often the only option to get educated. The research question is if the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in distance education can contribute to development, and if so, how?

This question is explored through two case studies in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. A variety of data collection methods have been used: interviews, questionnaires, participant observations and document review. The research approach is interpretative and findings are analyzed using Structuration Theory.

Initial findings showed that a major challenge for students was the change of learning practices that distance education required. Findings also showed that new constructive learning practices emerged through the use of ICT. For development to take place the learning practices of students are important. Students used to learning practices based on uncritical memorization of facts will not easily take initiatives for change, whereas students used to constructive learning practices will.  Notwithstanding the fact that most students found this transition challenging, it was found that by introducing technology into long-established transmission structures, changes towards constructive learning practices occurred.

A major contribution of this thesis is to increase the understanding of how ICT in distance education can facilitate constructive learning practices. By arguing that constructive learning practices are conducive to societal change this finding also has implications for development. The thesis also makes a theoretical contribution by extending Structuration Theory’s applicability in demonstrating its explanatory power in settings where researcher and informants are geographically and socially distant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2010. 148 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Informatics, 3
Keyword
ICT4D, distance education, constructive learning practices, Structuration Theory, ICT, developing countries, e-learning
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10354 (URN)978-91-7668-721-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-17, Hörsal M, Musikhögskolan, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, Örebro, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-04-12 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2012-09-04Bibliographically approved

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http://www.ejisdc.org/ojs2/index.php/ejisdc/article/viewFile/564/291

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