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Pulsed dose rate monobrachytherapy for cancer of the lip: first long time results from a clinical study
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. (onkologi, medicinsk strålfysik, brachyterapi)
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. (Onkologi, medicinsk strålfysik, brachyterapi)
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. (onkologi, medicinsk strålfysik, brachyterapi)
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. (onkologi, medicinsk strålfysik, brachyterapi)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background and purpose: To evaluate the long time outcome with regard to local tumour control and side effects of a pulsed dose rate (PDR) monobrachytherapy of primary or recurrent cancr of the lip.

Patients and methods: Between 1995 and 2007 we treated 43 patients with primary or recurrent T1-T3 lip cancers. The clinical stage was T1N0 for 22 patients (51 %), T2N0 for 16 patients (37 %) and T3N0 for 5 patients (12 %). A median dose of 60 (55-66) Gy was given, depending on the tumour volume. The PDR treatment was given with 0.83 Gy/pulse every second hour for 5.5-6.5 days. The patients were followed for a median of 55 (1-158) months.

Results: The 2-, 5- and 10-years rates of actuarial local control were 97.6 %, 94.5 % and 94.5 %, overall survival 88.0 %, 58.9 % and 39.1 %, disease free survival 92.7 %, 86.4 % and 86.4 % respectively. The regional control rate was 93 %. One patient (2 %) developed distant metastases. A dosimetrical analysis showed a mean treated volume of 14.9 (3.0-56.2) cm3.  In a review of late complications we found 1 (2 %) soft tissue necrosis and 1 (2 %) osteoradionecrosis. Long-term side effects were very mild and the cosmetic outcome excellent.

Conclusions: Local outcome is excellent and very similar to other published studies of continuous low dose rate (cLDR) brachytherapy.

Keyword [en]
Brachytherapy; Pulsed dose rate; Lip cancer; Outcome; Radiotherapy
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10417OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-10417DiVA: diva2:311243
Available from: 2010-04-20 Created: 2010-04-20 Last updated: 2016-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Long-term outcome research on PDR brachytherapy with focus on breast, base of tongue and lip cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term outcome research on PDR brachytherapy with focus on breast, base of tongue and lip cancer
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brachytherapy (BT) with continuous low dose rate (LDR) has been used for 100 years and is considered as the radiotherapy method able to deliver a dose in the shortest time with high efficacy and low risk of side effects. The drawbacks are need for patient isolation and radiation exposure of the staff during the treatment.

Brenner and Hall published the radiobiology concept for pulsed dose rate (PDR) in 1991.  Short (10-20 minutes), hourly pulses of high dose rate (HDR) given to the same dose, with same overall treatment time will virtually simulate continuous LDR. At the same time new afterloading machine technology became available, where a single millimetre sized radiation 192Iridium source sequentially moves through the applicator in small individually timed steps. The advantages are that the radiation dose can be optimized along the applicator and with no radiation exposure of the staff and no need for patient isolation more than during the pulse. This work deals with four different aspects of PDR BT

An experimental comparison of measured absorbed doses outside a left sided breast target on a body equivalent Alderson phantom was made.  Five external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) whole breast treatments to 50 Gy versus five accelerated partial breast irradiations (APBI) by PDR BT to 50 Gy were studied. The absorbed doses were measured in 67 different positions inside the body phantom by thermoluminescence dosimeters. The result shows that dose points distant to the left breast will have 1-1.4 % of the prescribed dose with no difference between EBRT and PDR BT. Organs at risk in short distance (<5 cm) to the target (such as parts of the left lung, heart muscle and the right breast) will have significantly less dose by PDR BT. In conclusion PDR BT has dosimetric advantages close to the target compared to EBRT and cannot do more damage to remote organs.

PDR APBI as the adjuvant RT treatment to breast conserving surgery after early breast cancer was studied. Between 1994-2004 we treated 50 women and 51 breasts. The median age of the population was 53 (40-72) years. The cases were radically resected, unifocal T1-2N0-1M0 tumours. PDR BT was given to a dose of 50 Gy for 5 days directed to the operated sector of the breast. The median treated volume was 160 cm3, constituting in median 31 % of the breast volume. The treatment is called accelerated because total treatment time is 5 days compared to 5 weeks for EBRT. After a median follow-up of 130 months (>10 years) we noted 5 (10 %) local recurrences in the treated breast. Four of these recurrences were outside the treated volume. Three women (6 %) developed cancers in the other breast. Early side effects were mild and less than with EBRT. As late side effects we found mild to moderate local fibroses in the treated volume. A cosmetic evaluation was done by both the patient and a nurse and was found to be lower than in other published data (56 % = good to excellent). The 10 years local failure rate is similar to the result from a large Swedish randomized study on whole breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy. The study indicates that PDR BT is highly effective.

A combination of EBRT (40.8 Gy) and PDR boost (35 Gy) to T1-4N0-3M0, base of tongue (BOT) cancer, treated during 1994-2007 was analyzed. The study is the first with PDR and second largest with BT worldwide. A number of 83 patients with a median age of 60 (38-82) years were included. BT was given to a mean volume of 58 ccm 2 days after the neck dissection. Median follow-up was 54 months. At 5 years we found 89 % local tumour control, 95 % neck control, 80 % disease free survival and an overall survival of 65 %. Late side effects were 13 % minor transient soft tissue necrosis and 12 % long lasting or permanent soft tissue- or osteoradio-necrosis. The results are among the best published worldwide. An extensive quality of life analysis was done on 45 patients at last follow-up and showed limited, persistent xerostomia and dysphagia. The global quality of life was rated good in 75 % of the patients.

The last study presented was PDR mono-brachytherapy (55-60 Gy) to cancer of the lip (T1-3N0M0). The study included 43 patients with a median age of 74 (37-92) years. The treatment time was 5.5-6 days and the mean treated volume was 15 ccm. The median follow-up time was 54 (1-158) months. Five year Kaplan-Meier data showed, local control 94 %, disease free survival 86 % and overall survival 59 %. An early side effect was a strong radiation mucositis and dermatitis, which healed in 1 month. Late side effects were uncommon and the cosmetic appearance and the lip function were found to be normal. Our data in total and per T-stage was compared to a European survey from 1993 on 2794 patients treated by LDR BT. The results are similar and are a strong indication of equal efficacy between PDR and LDR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2010. 81 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 42
Keyword
PDR, brachytherapy, outcome, partial breast irradiation, base of tongue cancer, lip cancer, quality of life, dosimetry.
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Surgery
Research subject
Oncology; Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10423 (URN)978-91-7668-723-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-21, Wilandersalen, M-huset, bottenvåning, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-04-20 Created: 2010-04-20 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved

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