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Quantitative analysis of soluble exudates produced by ectomycorrhizal roots as a response to ambient and elevated CO2
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM)
Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
(Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM)
2009 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1111-1116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite its potential impact on soil carbon flow, few studies have attempted to quantify the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on production of exudates by mycorrhizal plants. In this study we quantified low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by non-mycorrhizal (NM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants in relation to exposure to elevated CO2. Scots pine seedlings, either colonized by one of eight different ECM fungi or non-mycorrhizal (NM), were exposed to either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) concentrations of CO2. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids, dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined and exudation rates were calculated per g root and fungal dry mass. CO2 had a significant impact on exudation. Under elevated CO2, exudation of total LMWOAs increased by 120–160%, amino acids by 250%, dissolved monosaccharides by 130–270% and DOC by 180–220% compared to ambient CO2 treatment. Net CO2 assimilation rates increased significantly by 41–47% for seedlings exposed to elevated CO2. Exuded C calculated as a percentage of assimilated CO2 increased by 41–88% in the elevated CO2 treatment compared to ambient CO2 treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009. Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1111-1116
Keywords [en]
Ectomycorrhiza, Elevated carbon dioxide, Exudation, Glucosamine, LMWOAs, Pinus sylvestris
National Category
Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11845DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.016ISI: 000266942900011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-67349288511OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-11845DiVA, id: diva2:351670
Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Impact of root and mycorrhizal exudation on soil carbon fluxes: influence of elevated CO2 and metals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of root and mycorrhizal exudation on soil carbon fluxes: influence of elevated CO2 and metals
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis concerns the behavior of root and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) exudates. In particular, the dynamics of soluble low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds such as organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids, monosaccharides, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been studied. Our knowledge of exudation rates for tree roots and especially associated ECM is limited, and also factors influencing exudation rates. Two environmental factors, metal stress and elevated atmospheric CO2 level, have been investigated. Both are of great environmental concern, but function in different ways (detoxification and C allocation) and may be highly important for the C flux caused by root/ECM exudation. The project has been carried out with mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine seedlings, or saprotrophic fungi, under both sterile and non-sterile (soil) conditions. Analytical determination of exudates and calculation of exudation rates have been major tools for assessment. Assessing the possibility of using naturally occurring chelating agents (e.g. citrate and oxalate) for bioremediation of metals contaminated soils and development and validation of analytical techniques have been additional foci. The results show that from soil-living fungi and ectomycorrhizal roots exudation rates of especially LMWOAs increase significantly at Cd and Pb stress (1-100 μM), while As (as arsenate) and mixtures of metals with As have little effect. The impact of ECM fungi is large and much higher exudation rates are found when the symbionts are present both for controls and metal treatments compared to NM plants. In soil systems there was a significant mobilization of metals from soils under presence of saprotrophic fungi. Both N as well as elevated CO2 (700 ppm) causes sizable increases in exudation rates, independent of biomass, and is a finding that suggests that the availability of easily degradable carbon in soil raises, which may be highly important for the carbon flux in soil. Mycorrhizal seedlings (10 months old) increased total soil respiration ~50% compared to controls without plants in non-sterile soil systems. Key words: amino acids, 13C, carbon cycle, ectomycorrhiza, elevated CO2, exudation, DOC, LMWOA, metal stress, monosaccharides, oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, saprotrophic fungi, soil respiration

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2009. p. 68
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 14
Keywords
amino acids, 13C, carbon cycle, ectomycorrhiza, elevated CO2, exudation, DOC, LMWOA, metal stress, monosaccharides, oxalate, Pinus sylvestris, saprotrophic fungi, soil respiration
National Category
Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11848 (URN)978-91-7668-692-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-13, Hörsal HSM, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 11:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, Emma M.van Hees, Patrick A. W.

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