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Estimation of Commodity-by-Commodity Input–Output Matrices
Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2241-6093
Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6606-4854
2006 (English)In: Economic Systems Research, ISSN 0953-5314, E-ISSN 1469-5758, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 205-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we derive a method for the estimation of symmetric input–output tables (SIOTs), which makes it possible to use the commodity technology assumption even when use- and make tables are rectangular. The method also solves the problem of negative coefficients. In the empirical part we derive annual SIOTs in order to evaluate the differences between SIOTs calculated with different methods and the change in technical coefficients over time. Our results, based on data for Sweden, show that the impact of using different technology assumptions is rather large. However, in a factor content of trade application the impact of different technology assumptions does not seem to be very important. Also the size of the changes in the technical coefficients over time is found to be quite large, indicating the importance of calculating SIOTs annually.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge , 2006. Vol. 18, no 2, p. 205-215
Keywords [en]
Input–output model, commodity technology, product technology, factor content of trade
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12177DOI: 10.1080/09535310600653164Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33745302399OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-12177DiVA, id: diva2:356398
Available from: 2010-10-14 Created: 2010-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Taxation of intermediate goods: a CGE analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taxation of intermediate goods: a CGE analysis
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation is concerned with tax rates for the use of commodities in general, and energy in particular. Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models are used to analyze the normative question of whether the tax rate for intermediate use by firms should be the same as the tax rate for final consumption by households. To answer this question, a distinction needs to be made between fiscal taxes for the purpose of raising revenue for the government, and Pigovian taxes for the purpose of changing behaviour. Concerning fiscal taxes, firms should not pay taxes on their use of inputs if the tax rates in final consumption are at their optimal level. If the tax rate for households is above the optimal level, intermediate use in firms should be taxed in order to increase the price of other commodities and reduce the distortion of relative prices. Essay 1 ascertains what factors determine the optimal relation between the tax rate for final consumption by households and intermediate use by firms. Essay 2 analyses Swedish energy taxes from the perspective of reducing global emission of CO2. It is found that the welfare maximizing tax rates are equal for households and firms not participating in emission trading, while firms that participate in emission trading should have a zero tax rate. Essays 3 and 4 deal with methodological issues. Essay 3 derives a new method for estimation of symmetric input-output tables from supply and use tables. This method solves the problem of negative coefficients, makes it possible to use both the industry and commodity technology assumptions simultaneously and enables the commodity technology assumption to be used even when the number of commodities is larger than the number of industries. Essay 4 describes the model used in the first two essays. The price structure developed here makes it possible to take into account price differences between different purchasers other than differences in tax rates. This essay also makes a comparison between the Swedish implementation of this model and other Swedish CGE-models used to analyse climate policy and energy taxation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2010. p. 27
Series
Örebro Studies in Economics, ISSN 1651-8896 ; 19
Keywords
Optimal taxation, energy taxation, environmental taxes, emission trading, climate policy, carbon leakage, CGE-analysis, input-output tables
National Category
Social Sciences Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11902 (URN)978-91-7668-753-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-12, Hörsal M, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-09-24 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. Essays in International Trade: Measurement, Product Quality, Input-Output Modelling and Tax Evasion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Essays in International Trade: Measurement, Product Quality, Input-Output Modelling and Tax Evasion
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of four independent essays that deal with several measurement aspects within the field of international trade. The measurement problems addressed are related to measuring the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports or measuring tax evasion

Essay 1, The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement. Evidence from Swedish Data, deals with various measurement problems related to calculations of the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports. This builds on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek extension to the Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory.

Essay 2, Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade. A New Computational Framework, builds on the same theoretical background, but introduces a quality-adjustment in the calculations of the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports, which builds on the idea underlying vertical intra-industry trade (VIIT). Quality adjustment is performed, first, by assuming that a product sold at a higher price has a higher quality than the same product sold at a lower price and, second, by assuming that a highquality product implies a higher content of skilled labour than a low-quality product.

Essay 3, Estimation of commodity-by-commodity input–output matrices, focuses on a new method in constructing symmetric input-output tables (SIOTs), which has been termed the Bohlin and Widell model, using data contained within supply- and use-tables (SUTs). One key contribution is that it makes it possible to estimate SIOTs in cases when the underlying SUTs are rectangular. The method also addresses the problem of negative coefficients, a long-standing issue encountered in the derivation of SIOTs.

Essay 4, Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports, focuses on estimating the amount of tax evasion in trade between Kenya and Tanzania. The study is empirically focused, and the measurement errors in reported trade flows between both countries are correlated with tax rates, to determine whether the measurement error increases with the tax rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university, 2016. p. 27
Series
Örebro Studies in Economics, ISSN 1651-8896 ; 34
Keywords
Factor content of trade, human capital, vertical intra-industry trade, product quality, Input–output modelling, CTA, ITA, Tax Evasion, Africa
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52678 (URN)978-91-7529-167-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-23, Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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