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Critical remarks concerning the method used in Sweden for risk assessment of contaminated soils (MIFO)
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9274-3634
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-16009DiVA, id: diva2:424335
Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Electroremediation of contaminated soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electroremediation of contaminated soil
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electroremediation was applied to contaminated soils in order to study the transport of metals and organic compounds by the external electric field. The electric field caused acidic conditions near the anode, so that copper, zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, calcium and manganese were released from soil from a chlor-alkali site. The metals were transported towards and immobilised near the cathode, where pH was high. The metals were very strongly attached to the soil, which was shown by selective extraction. Mercury was removed through the electromigration of a mercury-iodide complex. 89 % of the mercury was removed from the soil near the cathode, and 46 % had arrived in the anode solution after 3 days. Chloride mobilised less than 50 %.

Clay had an over-all larger influence (retardation) then peat or goethite on the migration behaviour of metals in an artificial soil with sand base. The influence of clay on polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was the opposite. The presence of clay or fulvic acid increased the apparent solubility of pyrene and phenanthrene. However, when solid organic matter was added, pyrene and phenanthrene were sorbed to the soil, and the organic matter that was released into the soil solution could not compete for the PAH. Fulvic, citric, oxalic and gluconic acids, and phosphate were transported towards the cathode, while chloride, nitrate and sulphate moved towards the anode, as expected.

The results from an in-situ pilot scale experiment on mercury-contaminated soil are presented as well as a discussion on the Swedish method of surveying contaminated sites (MIFO).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2001. p. 47
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 2
Keywords
electrokinetic remediation, contaminated soil, mercury, heavy metals, organic compounds
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3 (URN)91-7668-287-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2001-12-17, Aulan, Örebro universitetsbibliotek, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2001-12-17 Created: 2001-12-17 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
2. Remediation of mercury polluted soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of mercury polluted soil
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mercury in contaminated soil constitutes a wide spectrum of species with highly different properties due to the chemical complexity of the element. Assessments of risk, ecological effects and removal potential require process and mobility studies. Identification of various chemical states of mercury in soil systems can be achieved by selective extraction procedures that would demonstrate the mobility and potential reactivity. In this thesis, a selective extraction method for mercury is presented. The method is mainly based on a parallel extraction procedure. The method was used to investigate the mercury mobility in two soils collected at two different chlor-alkali industrial sites; Bohus and Bengtfors. Both soils are heavily contaminated with mercury, 80 and 180 mg Hg/kg, respectively. In Bohus soil mercury was associated to organic matter with low water solubility and to a very resistant phase, strongly indicated to be dominated by mercury sulphides. In Bengtfors soil some mercury appeared to be weakly adsorbed, bound to secondary precipitates and associated to soluble humic matter. These result indicates a higher mobility of mercury in Bengtfors compared to Bohus soil. Both soils are fine grained with a clay dominated matrix. The main difference is the sulphur content. 0.4% and 0.03% for Bohus and Bengtfors soil, respectively. The preference of mercury for sulphides and reduced sulphur groups in organic matter is well established. The corresponding phases are in general very insoluble. This indicates that sulphur contents in soil to some extent reflects geochemical speciation as well as mobility of mercury.

Further, the possibility to mobilise insoluble mercury phases in soils using soil fungi as well as halogenides were investigated. This was made in an attempt to investigate possible in-situ technologies for remediation of mercury polluted soils. Some of the fungi studied were able to dissolve mercury sulphides. It was also indicated that the same fungi responded with volatilsation, accumulation and possible also precipitation of mercury, as soon as toxic levels of soluble mercury were reached. These latter responses can be of advantage or disadvantage depending on remediation design.

In batch experiments made with acidic iodide solutions and Bohus soil, a very fast and extensively dissolution of mercury was shown. Mobilisation of the mercury sulphide fraction present, could not be achieved solely by competitive complexation. The mechanism suggested was formation of tri-iodide at low pH. The combination of complextion and oxidation in the same molecule, breaks the bond between inorganic mercury and the sulphide. Extensively and fast mobilisation was also seen in a bench experiment, where iodide in combination with electroremediation simulated a possible in-situ remediation of Bohus soil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2001. p. 52
Series
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 1
Keywords
soil pollution, soil remediaion, mercury
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36 (URN)91-7668-278-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2001-06-08, Hörsal T, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 10:15
Supervisors
Available from: 2001-06-08 Created: 2001-06-08 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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Uggla, Ylva

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