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Assessment of human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs): exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM (människa-teknik-miljö) forskningscentrum)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6330-789X
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of human exposure have not been fully characterized. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the contributions from food, water, air and dust as sources for human PFC exposure in the general population.

Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of Up to 27 PFCs were determined at trace levels in blood (ng/mL), water (ng/L), foods (ng/g), dust (ng/g) and air (pg/m3) in a selected Catalan population and PFC intake was estimated from the measured PFC concentrations of the different sources of exposure.

The major compounds detected in human blood of the studied population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS; 3.6 ng/mL) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 1.8 ng/mL). In general, PFOS was also the major compound detected in most sources of exposure.

Food was found to be the dominant pathway for human PFC exposure accounting for more than 70 % of the total intake of both PFOS and PFOA. In the most populated area (the Barcelona Province) where the highest levels were measured, tap water can contribute to the total exposure substantially with more than 50 % for adults. Indoor sources were negligible in the selected area for most PFCs when compared to food and water intake, except for toddlers under a worst case scenario where contribution from dust and food intake were equal (19 %).

Pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling resulted in exposure of 103 ng PFOS/day and 33 ng PFOA/day of adults from the internal PFC blood concentrations. This agrees well with the intake estimated from external exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air of 80 ng PFOS/day and 32 ng PFOA/day and evidently all major exposure sources for the general population were included (in this study).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2011. , p. 85
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 10
Keywords [en]
human exposure, per- and polyfluorinated compunds (PFCs), dietary intake, drinking water, indoor environment
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16624ISBN: 978-91-7668-811-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-16624DiVA, id: diva2:436643
Public defence
2011-09-23, Örebro universitet, Hörsal M, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study
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2007 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5307 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2007.01.003 (DOI)17289145 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ
2010 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
PBDD, PBDF, TEQ, Human samples, PBDE, PFC
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13048 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.012 (DOI)000272888200006 ()
Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1787-1794Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5299 (URN)10.1021/jf0732408 (DOI)18251500 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food
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2009 (English)In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1577-1583Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
Keywords
Perfluorinated chemicals, Food, Cooking, Packaging, Dietary intake
National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17166 (URN)10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.004 (DOI)000267739300027 ()2-s2.0-67349118177 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2017-10-02Bibliographically approved
5. Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
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2008 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

National Category
Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5294 (URN)10.1007/s11356-008-0040-1 (DOI)18763004 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications
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2009 (English)In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the concentrations of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (PFBuS, PFHxS, PFOS, THPFOS, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTDA, and PFOSA) were analyzed in municipal drinking water samples collected at 40 different locations from 5 different zones of Catalonia, Spain. Detection limits ranged between 0.02 (PFHxS) and 0.85 ng/L (PFOA). The most frequent compounds were PFOS and PFHxS, which were detected in 35 and 31 samples, with maximum concentrations of 58.1 and 5.30 ng/L, respectively. PFBuS, PFHxA, and PFOA were also frequently detected (29, 27, and 26 samples, respectively), with maximum levels of 69.4, 8.55, and 57.4 ng/L. In contrast, PFDoDA and PFTDA could not be detected in any sample. The most contaminated water samples were found in the Barcelona Province, whereas none of the analyzed PFCs could be detected in two samples (Banyoles and Lleida), and only one PFC could be detected in four of the samples. Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L/day, the maximum daily intake of PFOS and PFOA from municipal drinking water would be, for a subject of 70 kg of body weight, 1.7 and 1.6 ng/kg/day. This is clearly lower than the respective Tolerable Daily Intake set by the European Food Safety Authority. In all samples, PFOS and PFOA also showed lower levels than the short-term provisional health advisory limit for drinking water (200 ng PFOS/L and 400 ng PFOA/L) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in drinking water in Catalonia are not expected to pose human health risks, safety limits for exposure to the remaining PFCs are clearly necessary, as health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure is set to 40 ng/L for PFOA.

National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13202 (URN)10.1007/s00244-009-9375-y (DOI)000270983600001 ()
Available from: 2011-01-17 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
7. Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure
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2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Per- and polyfluorinated compounds; Indoor environment; Exposure pathways; Intakes; House dust; Indoor air
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17167 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2011.09.004 (DOI)000300129100022 ()2-s2.0-84555217906 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2008-865
Note

Funding Agency:

Public Health Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya

Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved

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