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Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 2009
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Miljö och Hälsa vid MTM)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessing persistence and bioaccumulation properties of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This thesis is aimed at evaluating the occurrence of persistent halogenated POPs in seven species of sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals over a 25-year period. The emphasis is on studying temporal variations in concentration of three categories of POPs, including naturally occurring organobromine compounds.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) were extracted from blubber tissue and analyzed by GC/MS. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were extracted from livers and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Although restricted by the number of pooled samples, survey points, and species available from the specimen banks, the results showed some interesting contamination patterns.

Overall, pollutant concentrations showed signs of declining or levelling out, indicating a decrease in POP exposure in the studied areas in recent years. However, increasing levels of long-chain fluorinated compounds (PFCAs) present in most species is a finding of concern, and implies that a continuous monitoring of these compounds is important. Interestingly, a shift over time in the relative abundance of PFOS isomers in ringed seals was observed, indicating a change in exposure to PFOS in recent years.

In many of the investigated species the MeO-PBDE levels equalled or exceeded the levels of PBDEs, showing that MeO-PBDEs can be major contributors to the organobromine load in marine mammal species. No apparent relation was found between PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels, adding further support for a natural origin of MeO-PBDEs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2011. , p. 77
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 6
Keywords [en]
Arctic, marine mammals, North Atlantic Ocean, POPs, temporal variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17182ISBN: 978-91-7668-813-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-17182DiVA, id: diva2:439167
Public defence
2011-09-30, Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan, Hörsal M, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Organiska miljögifter i marina däggdjur
Note
Bert van Bavel and Magnus Engwall participate in the MTM Research CenterAvailable from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986 – 2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986 – 2009
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2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 40, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata),fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Marine mammals; Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); Spatial variations; Temporal variations
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17247 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.001 (DOI)000301025600014 ()21802148 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84856222973 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Nordic Council of Ministers

Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2018-08-29Bibliographically approved
2. Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and North West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale livers was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) over time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

Keywords
Marine mammals, PFSAs, PFCAs, Structural isomers, Temporal variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17248 (URN)
Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A selection of MeO-PBDE and PBDE congeners were analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using both low resolution and high resolution GC-MS. MeO-PBDE concentrations relative to total PBDE concentrations varied greatly between sampling periods and species. The highest MeO-PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, often exceeding the concentration of the most abundant PBDE, BDE-47. The lowest MeO-PBDE levels were found in fin whales and ringed seals. The main MeO-PBDE congeners were 6MBDE-47 and 2PMBDE-68. A weak correlation only between BDE-47 and its metoxylated analogue 6MBDE-47 was found and is indicative of a natural source for MeO-PBDEs.

Keywords
Arctic, Marine mammals, North Atlantic Ocean, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeOPBDEs), temporal concentration variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17249 (URN)
Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
4. Polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using high resolution GC-MS. PCN congeners #48, #52, #53, #66 and #69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland. The total PCN content accounted for less than 1% of the total coplanar PCB content. The lowest PCN concentrations were found in the samples from the latest sampling period (2006-2009). The results indicate a decline in the PCN load in marine mammals from the studied area in recent years.

Keywords
Marine mammals, polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs), temporal concentration variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17250 (URN)
Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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