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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986 – 2009
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6217-8857
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Food Safety and Environment, Oslo, Norway.
Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark.
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2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 40, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata),fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012. Vol. 40, p. 102-109
Keywords [en]
Marine mammals; Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); Spatial variations; Temporal variations
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17247DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.001ISI: 000301025600014PubMedID: 21802148Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84856222973OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-17247DiVA, id: diva2:440903
Note

Funding Agency:

Nordic Council of Ministers

Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2018-08-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 2009
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessing persistence and bioaccumulation properties of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This thesis is aimed at evaluating the occurrence of persistent halogenated POPs in seven species of sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals over a 25-year period. The emphasis is on studying temporal variations in concentration of three categories of POPs, including naturally occurring organobromine compounds.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) were extracted from blubber tissue and analyzed by GC/MS. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were extracted from livers and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Although restricted by the number of pooled samples, survey points, and species available from the specimen banks, the results showed some interesting contamination patterns.

Overall, pollutant concentrations showed signs of declining or levelling out, indicating a decrease in POP exposure in the studied areas in recent years. However, increasing levels of long-chain fluorinated compounds (PFCAs) present in most species is a finding of concern, and implies that a continuous monitoring of these compounds is important. Interestingly, a shift over time in the relative abundance of PFOS isomers in ringed seals was observed, indicating a change in exposure to PFOS in recent years.

In many of the investigated species the MeO-PBDE levels equalled or exceeded the levels of PBDEs, showing that MeO-PBDEs can be major contributors to the organobromine load in marine mammal species. No apparent relation was found between PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels, adding further support for a natural origin of MeO-PBDEs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2011. p. 77
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 6
Keywords
Arctic, marine mammals, North Atlantic Ocean, POPs, temporal variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17182 (URN)978-91-7668-813-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-30, Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan, Hörsal M, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Organiska miljögifter i marina däggdjur
Note
Bert van Bavel and Magnus Engwall participate in the MTM Research CenterAvailable from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Rotander, Annavan Bavel, Bert

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