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Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6217-8857
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and North West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale livers was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) over time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

Keywords [en]
Marine mammals, PFSAs, PFCAs, Structural isomers, Temporal variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17248OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-17248DiVA, id: diva2:440918
Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 2009
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessing persistence and bioaccumulation properties of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This thesis is aimed at evaluating the occurrence of persistent halogenated POPs in seven species of sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals over a 25-year period. The emphasis is on studying temporal variations in concentration of three categories of POPs, including naturally occurring organobromine compounds.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) were extracted from blubber tissue and analyzed by GC/MS. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were extracted from livers and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Although restricted by the number of pooled samples, survey points, and species available from the specimen banks, the results showed some interesting contamination patterns.

Overall, pollutant concentrations showed signs of declining or levelling out, indicating a decrease in POP exposure in the studied areas in recent years. However, increasing levels of long-chain fluorinated compounds (PFCAs) present in most species is a finding of concern, and implies that a continuous monitoring of these compounds is important. Interestingly, a shift over time in the relative abundance of PFOS isomers in ringed seals was observed, indicating a change in exposure to PFOS in recent years.

In many of the investigated species the MeO-PBDE levels equalled or exceeded the levels of PBDEs, showing that MeO-PBDEs can be major contributors to the organobromine load in marine mammal species. No apparent relation was found between PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels, adding further support for a natural origin of MeO-PBDEs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2011. p. 77
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 6
Keywords
Arctic, marine mammals, North Atlantic Ocean, POPs, temporal variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17182 (URN)978-91-7668-813-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-30, Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan, Hörsal M, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Organiska miljögifter i marina däggdjur
Note
Bert van Bavel and Magnus Engwall participate in the MTM Research CenterAvailable from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Rotander, AnnaKärrman, Annavan Bavel, Bert

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