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Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6217-8857
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A selection of MeO-PBDE and PBDE congeners were analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using both low resolution and high resolution GC-MS. MeO-PBDE concentrations relative to total PBDE concentrations varied greatly between sampling periods and species. The highest MeO-PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, often exceeding the concentration of the most abundant PBDE, BDE-47. The lowest MeO-PBDE levels were found in fin whales and ringed seals. The main MeO-PBDE congeners were 6MBDE-47 and 2PMBDE-68. A weak correlation only between BDE-47 and its metoxylated analogue 6MBDE-47 was found and is indicative of a natural source for MeO-PBDEs.

Keywords [en]
Arctic, Marine mammals, North Atlantic Ocean, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeOPBDEs), temporal concentration variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17249OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-17249DiVA, id: diva2:440925
Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 2009
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessing persistence and bioaccumulation properties of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This thesis is aimed at evaluating the occurrence of persistent halogenated POPs in seven species of sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals over a 25-year period. The emphasis is on studying temporal variations in concentration of three categories of POPs, including naturally occurring organobromine compounds.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) were extracted from blubber tissue and analyzed by GC/MS. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were extracted from livers and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Although restricted by the number of pooled samples, survey points, and species available from the specimen banks, the results showed some interesting contamination patterns.

Overall, pollutant concentrations showed signs of declining or levelling out, indicating a decrease in POP exposure in the studied areas in recent years. However, increasing levels of long-chain fluorinated compounds (PFCAs) present in most species is a finding of concern, and implies that a continuous monitoring of these compounds is important. Interestingly, a shift over time in the relative abundance of PFOS isomers in ringed seals was observed, indicating a change in exposure to PFOS in recent years.

In many of the investigated species the MeO-PBDE levels equalled or exceeded the levels of PBDEs, showing that MeO-PBDEs can be major contributors to the organobromine load in marine mammal species. No apparent relation was found between PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels, adding further support for a natural origin of MeO-PBDEs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2011. p. 77
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 6
Keywords
Arctic, marine mammals, North Atlantic Ocean, POPs, temporal variations
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17182 (URN)978-91-7668-813-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-30, Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan, Hörsal M, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Organiska miljögifter i marina däggdjur
Note
Bert van Bavel and Magnus Engwall participate in the MTM Research CenterAvailable from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Rotander, Annavan Bavel, Bert

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