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Skin-to-skin care in neonatal intensive care units in the Nordic countries: a survey of attitudes and practices
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Paediatrics and Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
Department of Child and Adolescent Health Services, Telemark Hospital, Skien, Norway.
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
NICU Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
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2012 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 10, p. 1140-1146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To investigate the application of skin-to-skin care (SSC) in the Nordic countries, the existence of guidelines for SSC and the attitudes of neonatal staff towards SSC.

Methods: One questionnaire was distributed at unit level and one at staff level in all Nordic neonatal intensive care units (n = 109).

Results: The unit questionnaire was answered by 95 (87%) units and the staff questionnaire by 1446 staff members (72%). All units offered SSC to various degrees, but guidelines only existed at 47% of them. Units in Denmark, Norway and Sweden seemed to use SSC earlier, longer and in more medically complicated situations than units in Finland and Iceland. Seventy-seven per cent of the units had private rooms where parents and infants could stay together, still the physical environment of the units limited the use of SSC. Medical risks were considered the main barrier for further implementation of SSC, while general development and early interaction were the most frequently mentioned benefits.

Conclusion: Skin-to-skin care is implemented in all Nordic neonatal units, but offered to various degrees, to various populations and to varying extents. Danish, Norwegian and Swedish units are offering SSC more extensively than units in Finland and Iceland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Vol. 101, no 10, p. 1140-1146
Keywords [en]
Kangaroo mother care, neonatal care, newborn infant, skin-to-skin care
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Medicine; Caring sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25710DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02802.xISI: 000309408200022PubMedID: 22849363Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84867101431OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-25710DiVA, id: diva2:549584
Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Promoting health in premature infants: with special focus on skin-to-skin contact and development of valid pain assesment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting health in premature infants: with special focus on skin-to-skin contact and development of valid pain assesment
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Premature infants are at greater risk for both short- and long-term negative outcomes than infants born at full term. Premature infants have an immature nervous system and are not developmentally prepared to process the often excessive stimuli and frequent painful procedures of intensive care. Skin-to-skin contact between the infant and the parent is beneficial for both infant and parents and can also humanize the intense environment of the neonatal intensive care unit. The aim of the thesis, to promote health in premature infants had two parts: (1) to investigate aspects of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) within neonatal care, and (2) to contribute to the development of a valid method for pain assessment in premature infants. In Study I, questionnaires about the implementation of SSC and staff’s attitudes toward the method were sent to all neonatal units in the Nordic countries. SSC was offered in all 87% of the units that responded, but to different extents in different countries. Medical risks and the physical environment were considered barriers to SSC, and the infant’s general development was considered the primary benefit. In Study II, 20 fathers of premature infants were interviewed about their experiences with SSC. The fathers’ overall experiences were positive and SSC made them feel involvedin their infant’s care. They also described the  environment as an obstacle, but the experience as both gratifying and challenging. In Study III, SSC with their mothers was shown to have a pain-relieving effect on premature infants undergoing a blood test. This effect was examined through nearinfrared spectroscopy (NIRS) over the somatosensory cortex. In Study IV the Premature Infant Pain Profile - Revised was translated and culturally adapted into Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish. In summary, SSC was used to various degrees in the Nordic countries, fathers seemed to appreciate the method, which made them feel more involved, and SSC provided pain relief during a blood test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2017. p. 63
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 157
Keywords
Near-infrared spectroscopy, Neonatal intensive care, Pain assessment, Premature infant, Skin-to-skin contact
National Category
General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54775 (URN)978-91-7529-183-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-07, Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Södra Grev Rosengatan 32, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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Olsson, EmmaEriksson, Mats

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