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3D normal distributions transform occupancy maps: an efficient representation for mapping in dynamic environments
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems ( AASS ))
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems ( AASS ))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2953-1564
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems ( AASS ))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6013-4874
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems ( AASS ))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0217-9326
2013 (English)In: The international journal of robotics research, ISSN 0278-3649, E-ISSN 1741-3176, Vol. 32, no 14, p. 1627-1644Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to enable long-term operation of autonomous vehicles in industrial environments numerous challenges need to be addressed. A basic requirement for many applications is the creation and maintenance of consistent 3D world models. This article proposes a novel 3D spatial representation for online real-world mapping, building upon two known representations: normal distributions transform (NDT) maps and occupancy grid maps. The proposed normal distributions transform occupancy map (NDT-OM) combines the advantages of both representations; compactness of NDT maps and robustness of occupancy maps. One key contribution in this article is that we formulate an exact recursive updates for NDT-OMs. We show that the recursive update equations provide natural support for multi-resolution maps. Next, we describe a modification of the recursive update equations that allows adaptation in dynamic environments. As a second key contribution we introduce NDT-OMs and formulate the occupancy update equations that allow to build consistent maps in dynamic environments. The update of the occupancy values are based on an efficient probabilistic sensor model that is specially formulated for NDT-OMs. In several experiments with a total of 17 hours of data from a milk factory we demonstrate that NDT-OMs enable real-time performance in large-scale, long-term industrial setups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 32, no 14, p. 1627-1644
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Systems Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30521DOI: 10.1177/0278364913499415ISI: 000329510300003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84892573777OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-30521DiVA, id: diva2:644380
Note

Funding agency:

Kunskaps och Kompetensutveckling Stiftelsen project SAUNA 20100315

Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-30 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Saarinen, JariAndreasson, HenrikStoyanov, TodorLilienthal, Achim J.

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