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Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement on the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening examination in children, adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Child and Youth Habilitation Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6703-7575
2014 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 120-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. To evaluate inter-rater and intra-rater agreement on the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) examination applied to children, adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP).

Materials and methods. Using the NOT-S examination, two speech and language pathologists independently assessed video recordings of 48 subjects with CP aged 522 years and representing all CP sub-diagnoses and levels of gross motor function and manual ability. Thirty-one subjects were reassessed. Fifteen out of 17 items in the NOT-S examination domains (1) Face at rest, (2) Nose breathing, (3) Facial expression, (4) Masticatory muscle and jaw function, (5) Oral motor function and (6) Speech were rated using a 'yes' (dysfunction observed)/'no' format, generating an overall score of 0-6.

Results. Inter-rater agreement: Twelve out of 15 items and five out of six domains showed acceptable unweighted kappa values (kappa = 0.46-1.00). The lowest kappa value was found for domain 4 (kappa = -0.04), although it had high inter-rater agreement (92%). The linear weighted kappa value for the overall NOT-S examination score was 0.65 (95% CI = 0.49-0.82). Intra-rater agreement: All items and domains showed acceptable unweighted kappa values (items 0.58-1.00 and 0.59-1.00, domains 0.81-1.00 and 0.62-0.89) for both raters. The linear weighted kappa value for the overall NOT-S examination score was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.63-0.99) for rater A and 0.54 (95% CI = 0.25-0.82) for rater B.

Conclusions. The NOT-S examination has acceptable inter-rater and intra-rater agreement when used in young individuals with CP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Informa Healthcare, 2014. Vol. 72, no 2, p. 120-129
Keywords [en]
facial paralysis, speech disorders, observer variation, reproducibility of results
National Category
Dentistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34856DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2013.810771ISI: 000333047000006PubMedID: 23834531Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84893000672OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-34856DiVA, id: diva2:714424
Note

Funding Agencies:

Folke Bernadotte Foundation

Norrbacka-Eugenia Foundation

Samariten Foundation

Örebro County Council Research Committee

Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-25 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved

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Edvinsson, Siv ElisabetLundqvist, Lars-Olov

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School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, SwedenSchool of Law, Psychology and Social WorkÖrebro University Hospital
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Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Dentistry

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