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Identification and composition of emerging quaternary ammonium compounds in municipal sewage sludge in China
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5729-1908
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
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2014 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 4289-4297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have raised considerable attention due to their wide commercial applications and recent discovery of unknown persistent analogues in aqueous environment. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of alkyltrimethylammonium (ATMAC), benzylakyldimethylethylammonium (BAC) and dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) homologues were investigated in fifty-two municipal sewage sludge samples. ATMAC C10-18, BAC C8-18 and paired DADMAC C8:8-C18:18 as well as emerging homologues such as ATMAC-20, 22 and mixed DADMAC-16:18 and 14:16 were present. Furthermore, paired DADMAC-20:20 and mixed DADMAC-14:18, 18:20 were identified for the first time by nontarget qualitative strategies. A triple quadruple mass spectrometer quantification method was also initially verified with the aid of laboratory synthesized standards for the analysis of the mixed DADMACs with no certificated commercial standards currently available. The total concentrations of ATMACs, BACs and DADMACs were in the range of 0.38-293, 0.09-191 and 0.64-344 μg/g dry weight, respectively, and particularly, mixed DADMACs constituted 39 ± 7% of total DADMAC concentrations. The concentrations and profiles of individual homologues further suggested different QAC applications and fate in China. Significant correlations were also found among the concentrations of various QAC homologues as well as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) characteristics (total organic carbon contents and daily treatment volumes).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2014. Vol. 48, no 8, p. 4289-4297
Keywords [en]
Allyl Compounds, China, Chromatography, Liquid, Cities, Mass Spectrometry, Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Reproducibility of Results, Sewage, Waste Water, Water Pollutants, Chemical
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-38399DOI: 10.1021/es4050314ISI: 000334658400008PubMedID: 24654682Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84898859595OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-38399DiVA, id: diva2:765035
Note

Sponsors:

National Natural Science Foundation Grant(s): 21207140  20921063 

Chinese Academy of Sciences Grant(s): YSW2013B01 

National Basic Research Program of China Grant(s): 2009CB421605

Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved

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Wang, Thanh

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