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Autophagy and ER-stress contribute to photoreceptor degeneration in cultured adult porcine retina
Department of Medicine and Optometry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
Department of Ophthalmology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Department of Ophthalmology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Medicine and Optometry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
2014 (English)In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1585, 167-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate rod and cone photoreceptor degeneration in organotypic cultures of adult porcine retina. Our hypothesis was that the photoreceptors accumulate opsins, which, together with exposure to cyclic dim light illumination, induce autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) to overcome damaging protein overload. For this purpose, retinas were cultured for 48 h and 72 h during which they were illuminated with dim light for 8 h/day; specimens were analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy. ER-stress and photoreceptor degeneration was observed in conventionally cultured retinas. The additional stress in the form of dim light illumination for 8 h/day resulted in increased levels of the ER-stress markers GRP78/BiP and CHOP, as well as increased level of active caspase-12. Increased autophagic processes in cone and rod photoreceptors were detected by LC3B-II increases and occurrence of autophagosomes at the ultrastructural level. Illumination also resulted in altered protein expression for autophagy inducers such as p62 and Beclin-1. Moreover, there was a decrease in phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which further indicate an increase of autophagy. Rod and cone photoreceptors in retinas from a diurnal animal that were exposed to dim light illumination in vitro displayed autophagy and ER-stress processes. As no alteration of rhodopsin mRNA was observed, autophagy and ER-stress are suggested to decrease rhodopsin protein at the posttranscriptional level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 1585, 167-183 p.
Keyword [en]
Photoreceptor, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Endoplasmic reticulum stress, Porcine retina, Retinal degeneration
National Category
Neurology
Research subject
Neurology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-39035DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.08.055ISI: 000343840300017PubMedID: 25173074Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84907653256OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-39035DiVA: diva2:766480
Note

Funding Agencies:

Faculty of Natural Sciences at Linnaeus University

Signhild Engkvist Foundation

Ögonfonden

Crown Princess Margaretas Committee for the Blind

Gun & Bertil Stohnes Foundation

Carmen & Bertil Regners foundation

Sven & Dagmar Salens foundation

Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-27 Last updated: 2014-11-27Bibliographically approved

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