oru.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Measuring adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus
Department of Psychology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8451-6263
Department of Psychiatry, NU-Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
Evidens Research and Development Center, Göteborg, Sweden; Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
2013 (English)In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) occurs in approximately 5% of the adult population and includes cardinal symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that may be difficult to identify with clinical routine methods. Continuous performance tests are objective measures of inattention and impulsivity that, combined with objective measures of motor activity, facilitate identification of ADHD among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the sensitivity, specificity, and a composite measure of ADHD using objective measures of the ADHD-cardinal symptoms in adult participants with ADHD and non-ADHD normative participants. Cardinal symptoms were measured in 55 participants having ADHD, 202 non-ADHD normative participants, as well as 84 ADHD normative participants using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. This test measures inattention and impulsivity using a continuous performance test, and hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. A predictive variable for the detection of ADHD called Prediction of ADHD yielded 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity. A composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms was developed using a Weighed Core Symptoms scale that indicated the total amount of ADHD symptoms on a numeric scale from 0 to 100. The total amount of ADHD symptoms was measured on a scale and predicted with the categorical variable in a majority of the cases in the present study. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the results with regard to additional clinical and normative samples. Careful consideration of potential sex and diagnostic subtype differences are noteworthy aspects for future examinations of the new instruments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2013. Vol. 2, no 1, p. 48-62
Keywords [en]
adults, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, psychometrics, objective measures
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-39856DOI: 10.1002/pchj.17PubMedID: 24294490OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-39856DiVA, id: diva2:772718
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Global Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining objective Measures of Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Inattention in Adults
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining objective Measures of Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Inattention in Adults
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to examine objective laboratory measures of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adult persons and to develop measures for diagnosis and treatment using a psychometric instrument called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instrument objectively quantifies cardinal symptom manifestations in adult ADHD using motion tracking devices and continuous performance testing.

Paper I-IV suggest that ADHD predisposes adult persons to perform poorer on continuous performance tasks and to have higher levels of motor activity while performing these tasks as compared to other clinical as well as non-clinical groups. Performance by adults with ADHD is normalized following stimulant treatment which implicates therapeutic effects and measures of response to treatment and remission for ADHD is suggested.

Paper I concludes that the psychometric instrument needs to be calibrated with regard to adult ADHD and emphasizes the importance of a composite measure for the disorder.

Paper II generates two new measures, the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) - a composite measure of adult ADHD ranging from 0 to 100, and Prediction of ADHD (PADHD) - a categorical variable of the diagnostic status with good predictive power. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on WCS (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of non-ADHD normative participants has high points on WCS (indicating low levels of symptoms).

Paper III examines WCS and PADHD among complex clinical groups with shared symptoms vis-à-vis ADHD. Here, findings from Paper II are replicated since participants with ADHD present the highest level of global symptoms, followed by participants with bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, participant with disconfirmed ADHD and finally, non-clinical participants has the lowest level of global symptoms.

In Paper IV, the measures are proposed as indications of response to treatment and remission after titration with stimulant treatment and WCS indicates response to small changes in dose level.

The major findings of the present thesis may be summarized as the construction of two new objective measures for ADHD in adult persons with practical implications for diagnosis and treatment. Hyperactivity is the most specific marker of ADHD in both men and women, followed by the cognitive markers of inattention and impulsivity. The composite measure, WCS, quantifies the global amount of ADHD symptoms and provides the most sensitive measure for the disorder. PADHD and WCS may not replace a thorough neuropsychiatric assessment and further studies promoting diagnostic subtype stratification is suggested. Future studies may want to consider these measures in outcome-based investigations of treatment efficacy as well as in the study of neuropsychological endophenotypes. Practical implications include clinical strategies to enhance objectivity during assessment as well as optimizing beneficial effects of treatment and attaining remission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Karlstad University, 2012. p. 192
Series
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2012:49
Keywords
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Objective measures, Adults, Psychometrics, Diagnosis, Treatment
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-39863 (URN)978-91-7063-460-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-14, Sjöströmsalen, IB 309, Karlstad, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-03-09 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2018-05-13Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Edebol, Hanna

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Edebol, Hanna
In the same journal
PsyCh Journal
Psychology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 331 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf