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Gene-TEQ-a standardized comparative assessment of effects in the comet assay using genotoxicity equivalents
Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. (MTM)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2356-6686
2012 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 14, p. 1325-1334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Existing methods for the comparison of genotoxic effects in the comet assay bear considerable disadvantages such as the problem to link information about concentration dependence and severity of effects. Moreover, given the lack of standardized protocols and the use of various standards, it may be extremely difficult to compare different studies. In order to provide a method for standardized comparative assessment of genotoxic effects, the concept of genotoxicity equivalents (Gene-TEQ) was developed. As potential reference compounds for genotoxic effects, three directly acting (N-methyl-N0-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methyl-methanesulfonate, and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea) and three indirectly acting (cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, and 4-nitroquinoline-oxide) genotoxic substances were compared with respect to their cytotoxic (neutral red) and genotoxic (cometassay) concentration–response profiles in the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1. For further comparison, two sediment extracts from the upper Danube River were investigated as environmental samples. Based on the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing, MNNG was selected as the reference compound. At several exposure levels and durations, genotoxic effects of both the other pure substances and the environmental samples were calculated as percentages of the maximum MNNGeffect and related to the absolute MNNG effect (EC values). Thus, genotoxicity equivalent factors(Gene-TEQs) relative to MNNG could be calculated. Gene-TEQs can easily be applied to puresubstances, mixtures and field samples to provide information about their toxicity relative to the reference compound. Furthermore, the Gene-TEQ concept allows a direct comparison of environmental samples from different laboratories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry , 2012. Vol. 14, p. 1325-1334
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-40133DOI: 10.1039/C2EM10947FISI: 000303501800007PubMedID: 22441078Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84860758140OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-40133DiVA, id: diva2:776031
Available from: 2015-01-06 Created: 2015-01-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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