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Fina fisken
Stockholm Center for Organizational Research (SCORE), Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7215-2623
2004 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report analyses the efforts to develop and introduce an eco-labellingscheme for seafood in Sweden. WWF took the initiative in 1996 by proposing the Marine Stewardship Council’s model. But authorities and other key actors in the fishing industry rejected MSC for different reasons. Yet, the initiative led to informal discussions between groups, and after some years a well-known Swedish NGO (KRAV) agreed to manage an eco-labelling project. Debates and negotiations among stake-holders continued within this project and in March2004 KRAV’s board decided to approve the standard and begun to eco-label seafood.

This report describes the development of the debates and the standardization process from WWF’s first initiative to KRAV’s final approval. The report is descriptive with an aim to contribute to the theorizing and understanding of eco-labelling as a new and interesting policy-arrangement in environmental governance and green political consumerism. Despite its explorative character, three theoretical themes are used as a basis and structure for the presentation and analysis.

The first theme is about background factors that both facilitated and hampered the process. It is shown that a criticised transnational and state regulatory background was an important motive for initiating eco-labelling in non-statearenas, but also that a problematic regulatory context can encumber an eco-labelling process. Yet, recent discursive changes in transnational, European, and national regulation have provided an increasing openness towards, for instance, market based environmental policy-instruments. The labelling process was facilitated by a specific Swedish political culture of relative openness, reformist orientation, pragmatism and co-operation among large interest groups. However, a complicating factor preceding the process was the deep controversies and mutual distrust among stakeholders. The Swedish organizational landscape with strong organizations in all societal spheres (state, market, civil society) generally facilitates eco-labelling. However, a complicating factor preceding this case was the asymmetric power structure among important stakeholders favouring large fisheries.

The second theme in the report emphasises the importance of the organizing process, i.e. of finding and developing organizational forms that all stakeholders accept. It is shown that the hybrid-organization KRAV was chosen because of several benefits. Although KRAV lacks MSC’s global connections and has specialised in organic food, it is unique in the sense that it is acknowledged by all stakeholders and well known among consumers. It also provides established and efficient routines for standardization activities. The report also shows that the standardization process it self helped to bring antagonist groups closer toeach other.

A third theme in the report is around the main debates in the standardization process and on how topics were framed. The report shows that it was tricky to deal with all demands expressed from the different stakeholders. It is argued thatit is of central importance for participants involved to develop common framings of problems and solutions regarding eco-labelling matters. The report describes and analyses some of the most central debates; around, for example trade issues,how to make the standard feasible, auditing and mechanisms for inspection, connection to global standards, standards for assessing healthy fish stocks, toxic substances in fish, and fishing techniques. It is shown that discussions have generally been formed by an eco-pragmatic framing with one market pragmatist pole and one environmental stringency pole.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SCORE , 2004. , p. 89
Series
Score rapportserie, ISSN 1404-5052 ; 2004:9
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-39715ISBN: 91-89658-26-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-39715DiVA, id: diva2:777709
Available from: 2011-03-13 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
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  • de-DE
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
  • asciidoc
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