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Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5215-5934
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2674-4994
2014 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 2505-2519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 34, no 12, p. 2505-2519
Keywords [en]
Ash; Incineration residue; Solid waste management; Trace element partitioning
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-41179DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.08.025ISI: 000347019700009PubMedID: 25263218Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84910639884OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-41179DiVA, id: diva2:779818
Available from: 2015-01-13 Created: 2015-01-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Distribution and chemical association of trace elements in incinerator residues and mining waste from a leaching perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and chemical association of trace elements in incinerator residues and mining waste from a leaching perspective
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Incineration is a mainstream strategy for solid waste management in Sweden and all over the world. Improved knowledge and understanding about the distribution of trace elements (in ashes) during incineration, and how trace element partitioning respond to the changes in waste composition, are important in terms of combustion process optimization and plant efficiency. Moreover, determination of chemical association of trace elements in ashes are vital for avoiding environmental concerns and to promote possible reuse. In this study, partitioning of trace elements in ashes during incineration as function of input waste fuel and incineration technology was investigated. Further, chemical association of trace elements in resulting ashes was studied. An evaluation was also performed about feasibility of metal extraction from sulfidic mining waste and flotation tailings. Moreover, green liquor dreg (GLD) was tested with respect to stabilization of metals within the sulfidic mining waste.

Findings showed that the total input of trace elements and chlorine affects the partitioning and increasing chlorine in the input waste caused increase in transfer of trace elements to fly ash especially for lead and zinc. Vaporization, condensation on fly ash particles and adsorption mechanisms play an important role for metal distribution. Firing mixed waste, especially biofuel mix, in grate or fluidized (CFB) boilers caused increased transfer into fly ash for almost all trace elements particularly lead and zinc. Possible reasons might be either an increased input concentration of respective element in the waste fuel, or a change in volatilization behavior due to the addition of certain waste fractions. Chemical association study for fly ashes indicated that overall, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Sb are presenting major risk in most of the fly ashes, while in bottom ashes, most of elements are associated with stable fraction. Further, fuel type affects the association of elements in ashes. Chemical leaching of mining waste materials showed that sulfuric acid (under different conditions) is the best reagent to recover zinc and copper from sulfidic mining waste and also copper from flotation tailings. GLD indicates potential for metal stabilization in mining waste by reducing the metal mobility. Extraction methods could be applied to treat mining waste in order to meet the regulatory level at a specific mining site.Similarly stabilization/solidification  methods might be applied after leaching for recovery of metals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university, 2016. p. 92
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 15
Keywords
trace elements, partitioning, fly ash, bottom ash, speciation, association, risk assessment, wood waste, incineration, mining waste
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48933 (URN)978-91-7529-128-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-03, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Saqib, NaeemBäckström, Mattias

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