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Dynamic sentinel node biopsy in penile cancer: initial experiences at a Swedish referral centre
Örebro University Hospital.
Örebro University Hospital.
Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
2013 (English)In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 111, no 3B, p. E48-E53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Study Type Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? According to the current European Association of Urology Guidelines, dynamic sentinel node biopsy is the recommended approach to assess lymph node status in men with cN0 intermediate and high risk penile cancer. Nevertheless, most encouraging results derive from a limited number of studies. The present study shows a false-negative rate of 15%, comparable with or better than several previous studies. Nevertheless, the aim should be a false-negative rate of no more than 5%. We conclude that increased overall experience and the use of the complete modern dynamic sentinel node biopsy protocol are paramount to improve results.

OBJECTIVE center dot To evaluate the false-negative rate and complication rate of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) in penile cancer.

PATIENTS AND METHODS center dot In this retrospective study, 58 unilaterally or bilaterally clinically lymph node negative (cN0) patients with penile cancer (57 squamous cell carcinomas and one malignant melanoma), scheduled for DSNB at the orebro University Hospital, Sweden, between 1999 and 2011, were analysed. center dot Preoperative ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology of suspicious nodes were not introduced until 2008. center dot Patients were assessed by lymphoscintigraphy using 99mtechnetium nanocolloid on the day before surgery and the dissection of sentinel nodes was aided by the lymphoscintigraphic images and intraoperative detection of radiotracer and patent blue dye. center dot The false-negative rate and complication rate were calculated per groin.

RESULTS center dot Of the 58 patients, 32 (55%) underwent preoperative ultrasonography. center dot Two patients had positive fine-needle aspiration cytology and discontinued further DSNB protocol. Of the remaining 56 patients, all but one were bilaterally cN0 and hence 111 cN0 groins were assessed by lymphoscintigraphy. center dot In the 55 bilaterally cN0 patients, lymphoscintigraphy visualized a bilateral sentinel node in 34 (62%). center dot At surgery, all excised sentinel nodes were radioactive while 43% were additionally blue. In total, at least one sentinel node was harvested in 96 (86%) of the DSNB staged groins. center dot A positive sentinel node was found in 11 groins (bilaterally in three patients). During a median follow-up of 21 months, two false-negative cases emerged, producing a false-negative rate of 15%. Both false-negative cases occurred during the first half of the study. The complication rate was 10%. The majority of complications were minor and transient.

CONCLUSIONS center dot DSNB is a minimally invasive staging tool in men with cN0 penile cancer, enabling early detection of metastatic disease and thus optimal care. center dot Our false-negative rate of 15% is comparable or even favourable in comparison with several previous studies, but far from the 5% or less that we aim for. The complication rate found is somewhat higher than previously reported. center dot With increased overall experience and the continued use of the complete DSNB protocol, we believe our results will improve and the complication rate will decrease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 111, no 3B, p. E48-E53
Keywords [en]
penile cancer, sentinel node, lymphoscintigraphy, false-negative rate, complications, learning curve
National Category
Urology and Nephrology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42993DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11437.xISI: 000315642700005PubMedID: 22928991Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84874687293OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-42993DiVA, id: diva2:791242
Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-27 Last updated: 2018-05-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Penile cancer: studies on prognostic factors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Penile cancer: studies on prognostic factors
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university, 2014. p. 77
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 108
Keywords
Human papillomavirus, Incidence, Penile cancer, Prognostic factors, Recurrences, Sentinel node, Survival
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Surgery
Research subject
Medicine; Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35379 (URN)978-91-7529-002-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-26, Universitetssjukhuset, Wilandersalen, Södra Grev Rosengatan, Örebro, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-06-17 Created: 2014-06-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Kirrander, PeterAndrén, Ove

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