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Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM, Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5215-5934
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM, Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2674-4994
2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 36, no 1 Oct., p. 9-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Sb > As > Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in > 50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Science Press, 2015. Vol. 36, no 1 Oct., p. 9-21
Keywords [en]
Incineration residues; Leaching behavior; Biofuel incineration; Metal distribution; Waste incineration
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45103DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2015.03.006ISI: 000362983500002PubMedID: 26456601Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84943225103OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-45103DiVA, id: diva2:839730
Note

Funding Agency:

Varmeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Association) Q4-251

Available from: 2015-07-04 Created: 2015-07-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Distribution and chemical association of trace elements in incinerator residues and mining waste from a leaching perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and chemical association of trace elements in incinerator residues and mining waste from a leaching perspective
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Incineration is a mainstream strategy for solid waste management in Sweden and all over the world. Improved knowledge and understanding about the distribution of trace elements (in ashes) during incineration, and how trace element partitioning respond to the changes in waste composition, are important in terms of combustion process optimization and plant efficiency. Moreover, determination of chemical association of trace elements in ashes are vital for avoiding environmental concerns and to promote possible reuse. In this study, partitioning of trace elements in ashes during incineration as function of input waste fuel and incineration technology was investigated. Further, chemical association of trace elements in resulting ashes was studied. An evaluation was also performed about feasibility of metal extraction from sulfidic mining waste and flotation tailings. Moreover, green liquor dreg (GLD) was tested with respect to stabilization of metals within the sulfidic mining waste.

Findings showed that the total input of trace elements and chlorine affects the partitioning and increasing chlorine in the input waste caused increase in transfer of trace elements to fly ash especially for lead and zinc. Vaporization, condensation on fly ash particles and adsorption mechanisms play an important role for metal distribution. Firing mixed waste, especially biofuel mix, in grate or fluidized (CFB) boilers caused increased transfer into fly ash for almost all trace elements particularly lead and zinc. Possible reasons might be either an increased input concentration of respective element in the waste fuel, or a change in volatilization behavior due to the addition of certain waste fractions. Chemical association study for fly ashes indicated that overall, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Sb are presenting major risk in most of the fly ashes, while in bottom ashes, most of elements are associated with stable fraction. Further, fuel type affects the association of elements in ashes. Chemical leaching of mining waste materials showed that sulfuric acid (under different conditions) is the best reagent to recover zinc and copper from sulfidic mining waste and also copper from flotation tailings. GLD indicates potential for metal stabilization in mining waste by reducing the metal mobility. Extraction methods could be applied to treat mining waste in order to meet the regulatory level at a specific mining site.Similarly stabilization/solidification  methods might be applied after leaching for recovery of metals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university, 2016. p. 92
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 15
Keywords
trace elements, partitioning, fly ash, bottom ash, speciation, association, risk assessment, wood waste, incineration, mining waste
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48933 (URN)978-91-7529-128-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-03, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Saqib, NaeemBäckström, Mattias

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