oru.sePublikationer
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Pengar som ristningar på träpinnar: Icke-monetära pengars funktion för fungerade lagbildningar
Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. (Ceroc)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1356-8741
2015 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 135, no 3, 401-431 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Notches on wooden sticks: the role of non-coin money in village organization

Local money in the form of notched sticks played a significant role in selfregulated organization of exchange in villages in 16th- and 17th-century Sweden. This kind of money is an example of non-coin money that only existed as money of account, or more precisely only as notches on wooden sticks (tally-sticks).

The article argues that it is impossible to speak of local money as an isolated unit. Instead, the money symbolized by notches was interwoven with credit-networks and social relations. This helps to explain how local money made cooperation possible. Moreover, the local money of account was connected to credit systems and social relations, which explains why adoption of modern credit forms as well as changes in social relations were slow to develop in many localities.

Using a perspective based in accounting history and anthropology, which sees money as credit, this article contributes to heterodox theories of money that seeks to explain the functions and social relations of different kinds of money.

The money system linked to the notched sticks can be seen as variation of today’s community currencies that make different social actions possible and which are constructed for special purposes. Often one stick was created for a specific activity. In other words, the farmers created their own money for different purposes. For example, there were turn-taking sticks for ploughing snow, feeding the bull, delivering the post or providing transportation for the local clergy etc. Such sticks were often connected to sticks that recorded failure to deliver services. Persons who had not done their daily work had to do more days of work in the future. Other sticks could be used to remember and calculate how much timber or workdays different farms contributed to buildings such as the common mill or saw and how much of it was used. Such sticks made it possible to calculate and ensure that rights and obligations were distributed according to egalitarian principles. In such cases money as notches was used as calculative money and made possible value reciprocity.

The article is based on ethnographic and historical literature together with the Nordic Museum’s collection of notched sticks, including information about their usage; the Nordic museum’s questionnaires about village organization in the beginning of the 20th century; and private research archives. 

Abstract [sv]

Lokala pengar spelade en central roll i byorganiseringen på 1700- och 1800-talen. Sådana lokala pengar var icke-monetära och förekom bara som ristningar på träpinnar, det vill säga karvstockar. I detta karvstockssystem var de lokala pengarna intimt sammanvävda med kreditnätverk och sociala relationer. Mot denna bakgrund argumenterar författaren för att lokala pengar möjliggjorde olika typer av sociala relationer, men även att sådana pengar kan förklara trögheten i utvecklingen av modernare former av kreditnätverk. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska historiska föreningen , 2015. Vol. 135, no 3, 401-431 p.
Keyword [en]
local money; money of account; community currencies; heterodox theories of money; village organization; tally sticks; notched sticks
National Category
Business Administration Economic History Economics
Research subject
Business Studies; History
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45826ISI: 000362797200004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85011301695OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-45826DiVA: diva2:854595
Projects
Ristade pinnars roll för samarbete
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P2014-0166:1
Available from: 2015-09-17 Created: 2015-09-17 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

ScopusPDF

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Forsberg, Per
By organisation
Örebro University School of Business
In the same journal
Historisk Tidskrift (S)
Business AdministrationEconomic HistoryEconomics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Total: 388 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf