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Waste incineration: impact of input waste fuel composition on trace element distribution and chemical speciation in fly and bottom ashes
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5215-5934
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2674-4994
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Incineration process for waste to energy is a widely developed method for solid waste management in Sweden and all over the world. In addition to its unique benefits of mass and volume reduction of waste, it can also provide electricity and/or heat. In Sweden 48% of household waste, 40% of industrial waste and 75% of recovered waste wood (RWW) (construction and demolition) are treated through incineration. In order to avoid environmental concerns and operational problems posed by incineration by-products (fly ash, bottom ash), it is important to understand that how trace element partitioning respond to the changes in waste composition. In this study, Influence of input waste fuel composition and chlorine content on trace element distribution in solid waste (RWW, industrial waste, RWW mixed with bark & sludge and mixed household & industrial waste) incineration fly and bottom ashes were studied. Further, chemical speciation of trace elements in resulting fly/bottom ashes was investigated by sequential extraction. Results indicate that Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr are the dominating trace elements in the waste fuel and ashes. Most part of high and medium volatile trace elements such as Cd, Pb, Zn, Sb and As were transferred to fly ash for pure RWW / industrial waste incineration in fluidized boilers. Overall, As and Cd seems to show increased transfer to fly ash with the increase in input content of these elements in the waste fuel, while low volatiles Cu and Cr showed decrease in transfer to fly ash with input content. Overall, Cd was partitioned mostly in the fly ash in all cases during incineration, most probably because of vaporization, condensation on fly ash particles and adsorption mechanisms. While 2/3 or more of Zn and Pb also transferred to fly ash. Low volatiles Cu and Cr stayed mainly in the bottom ash except in a few fluidized boilers operation that might be attributed to particle entrainment or turbulence. Increased chlorine in the waste fuel feed increased the trace element transfer to fly ash especially for Zn and Pb by forming their metal chlorides that are highly volatile. Sequential extraction results and risk assessment code showed that Zn and Pb in RWW, Cd in industrial waste, Pb, Cu and Cd in mixed household/industrial waste while Zn, Cd in mixed biofuel waste fly ash were posing high risk to the environment on utilization/landfilling. Further speciation results indicated that in RWW bottom ash, arsenic was mainly (around 50%) present in mobile fractions (ion exchangeable and acid soluble). While in mixed household & industrial waste bottom ash, 65% of Cu was bound to the oxidizable fraction that indicates the role of organic matter on leaching. Moreover, bottom ash from incineration of industrial waste or mixed household/industrial waste contained higher amounts (as compared to biofuel incineration bottom ashes) of trace elements such as that of Zn, Cu, Cr and Sb in labile fractions An increased input concentration of certain trace elements, such as Zn when firing pure RWW or mixed biofuel and chlorine while firing mixed waste or industrial waste, caused increased concentration in fly ash. It might also boost the deposition and corrosion problems. So it is suggested to keep input metal content and chlorine concentrations as low as possible

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46306OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-46306DiVA: diva2:864054
Conference
15th International waste management and landfill symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, October 5-9, 2015
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved

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Saqib, NaeemBäckström, Mattias
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School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden
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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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