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High-throughput sequencing reveals the incomplete, short-term recovery of infant gut microbiota following parenteral antibiotic treatment with ampicillin and gentamicin
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Microbiology Department, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto ON, Canada.
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland. (Nutrition-Gut-Brain Interactions Research Centre)
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2012 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 56, no 11, p. 5811-5820Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The infant gut microbiota undergoes dramatic changes during the first 2 years of life. The acquisition and development of this population can be influenced by numerous factors, and antibiotic treatment has been suggested as one of the most significant. Despite this, however, there have been relatively few studies which have investigated the short-term recovery of the infant gut microbiota following antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing (employing both 16S rRNA and rpoB-specific primers) and quantitative PCR to compare the gut microbiota of nine infants who underwent parenteral antibiotic treatment with ampicillin and gentamicin (within 48 h of birth), 4 and 8 weeks after the conclusion of treatment, relative to that of nine matched healthy controls. The investigation revealed that the gut microbiota of the antibiotic-treated infants had significantly higher proportions of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0049) and significantly lower proportions of Actinobacteria (P = 0.00001) (and the associated genus Bifidobacterium [P = 0.0132]) as well as the genus Lactobacillus (P = 0.0182) than the untreated controls 4 weeks after the cessation of treatment. By week 8, the Proteobacteria levels remained significantly higher in the treated infants (P = 0.0049), but the Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus levels had recovered and were similar to those in the control samples. Despite this recovery of total Bifidobacterium numbers, rpoB-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that the number of different Bifidobacterium species present in the antibiotic-treated infants was reduced. It is thus apparent that the combined use of ampicillin and gentamicin in early life can have significant effects on the evolution of the infant gut microbiota, the long-term health implications of which remain unknown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, USA: American Society for Microbiology , 2012. Vol. 56, no 11, p. 5811-5820
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Medical and Health Sciences Microbiology
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URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46360DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00789-12ISI: 000310055800049PubMedID: 22948872Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84868036621OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-46360DiVA, id: diva2:866262
Available from: 2015-11-02 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved

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